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"O Allah! We seek goodness from Your Knowledge and with Your Power (and Might) We seek strength, and We ask from You Your Great Blessings, because You have the Power and We do not have the power. You Know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action (We are about to take) is better for my religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then make it destined for us and make it easy for us and then add blessings [baraka'] in it, for us. O Allah! In Your Knowledge if this action is bad for us, bad for our religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then turn it away from us and turn us away from it and whatever is better for us, ordain [destine] that for us and then make us satisfied with it."

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Importance of a good shaykh by Shaykh Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi Allahu anhu

Al Ghawth al-Adham Shaykh Sayyad Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi 'Allahu anhu said: You must work hard to ensure that your hearts are not locked out of the door of His nearness. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must seek the company of a Shaykh who is learned in the law [hukm] and knowledge ['ilm] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), and who will show you the way toward Him. Without seeing the successful [muflih], one cannot succeed. If a person does not seek the company of scholars who put their knowledge into practice ['ulama 'ummal], he is a chicken from an egg abandoned by the rooster and the mother hen.

Seek the fellowship of those who enjoy fellowship with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). What each of you should do, when the night has grown dark and people have gone to bed and their voices are silent, is get up, take an ablution [yatawadda'], perform two cycles of ritual prayer [yusalli rak'atain] and say: "O my Lord, guide me to one of Your righteous servants near to You, so that he may guide me toward You and make me familiar with Your path." The instrument [sabab] is necessary. Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) was quite capable of guiding [His servants] to Him without the Prophets [anbiya']. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must awaken from your heedless folly. As the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: If someone relies entirely on his own subjective judgement, he will go astray. Try to find someone who will be a mirror for the face of your religion [din], just as you look in the mirror to check the appearance of your outer face, your turban and your hair. Be sensible! What is this crazy foolishness? You say, "I don't need anyone to teach me," and yet the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: The believer is the believer's mirror [al-mu'minu mir'atu 'l-mu'min].

When the believer's faith is sound, he comes to be a mirror for all creatures. They behold their religious faces [wujuh adyanihim] reflected in the mirror of his speech, every time they see him and get close to him. What is this craziness? Not a moment goes by without your begging Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) to provide you with more than you already have to eat, to drink, and to wear, with more sexual opportunities and more income. These are not things that could increase or decrease, even if you were to be joined in your plea by every supplicant whose prayers are answered [da 'in mujab].

Supplication [da 'wa] will neither increase one's sustenance by so much as an atom, nor reduce it by an atom. This is a foregone conclusion [mafrugh minhu]. You must devote your attention to doing what you have been commanded to do, and to avoiding what you have been forbidden to do. You should not worry about that which is bound to come your way, because He guarantees that it will come to you. Allotted shares [aqsam] arrive at their appointed times, whether they be sweet or bitter, whether you like them or dislike them.

The people [of the Way] attain to a condition in which they no longer have any prayer of supplication [du'a] or request [su'al] to make. They do not beg [in their prayers] to gain advantages, nor to get rid of disadvantages. Their supplication comes to be a matter concerning their hearts, sometimes for their own sake and sometimes for the sake of all creatures, so they utter the prayer of supplication without conscious premeditation [fi ghaiba].
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"O '' Allah, endow us with good behaviour in Your company under all circumstances!
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[When the believer's faith is sound], fasting [sawm], prayer [salat], remembrance [dhikr] and all acts of obedience [ta 'at] become second nature to him, mingled with his flesh and blood. Then he receives protection from Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) under all circumstances. The restraint of the law [hukm] does not desert him, not for an instant, while he is on this course. The law comes to be like the vessel in which he sits, as he travels over the ocean of the power [qudra] of his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He). He goes on traveling over it until he arrives at the shore of the hereafter, at the shore of the ocean of grace and the hand of nearness. Thus he is sometimes in the company of creatures and at certain times in the company of the Creator. His work and toil are with creatures, while his relaxation is with the Creator.
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From Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, "The Sublime Revelation (Al-Fath ar-Rabbani)," translated by Muhtar Holland (Al-Baz Publishing, Houston, 1992), p. 426-8.
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On the authority of Abu Hurayrah r.a., who said that Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. said: Allah SWT said:

Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him. (It was related by al-Bukhari)
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“Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”

Monday, May 26, 2008

Guru Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani di Mekah dan Madinah

Ruangan Bicara Agama Utusan Malaysia - 26 Mei, 2008/20 Jamadil Awal 1429

Belum sampai 30 tahun umurnya, telah diakui sebagai seorang ulama besar yang menguasai pelbagai bidang ilmu pengetahuan sekurang-kurangnya 47 jenis. Namun bagi Sheikh Ahmad bin Muhammad Zain al-Fathani sendiri masih tetap dahagakan ilmu pengetahuan.

Dia pulang ke Mekah kerana ingin memperdalam ilmunya, tetapi ulama yang tahu bahawa Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani itu seorang yang telah banyak menguasai ilmu pengetahuan jarang yang sudi untuk mengajarnya.

Berbulan-bulan Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani menyamar seperti orang yang tidak mengerti apa-apa. Dia mendatangi seluruh halaqah tempat guru-guru mengajar dalam Masjidil Haram untuk mencari guru mana yang layak untuk tempatnya belajar.

Pada suatu hari beliau mendatangi seorang ulama yang sangat terkenal di Masjidil Haram. Apabila Tuan Guru itu selesai mengajar, ketika diadakan ruang soal jawab, Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani menanyakan sesuatu masalah kepada Tuan Guru itu.

Tuan Guru itu tidak mahu menjawab pertanyaannya. Dengan demikian Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani telah maklum adanya, lalu dia minta izin untuk meninggalkan majlis itu. Setelah dia pergi, murid-murid yang hadir dengan tercengang-cengang menanyakan kepada Tuan Guru, “Apa sebab Tuan Guru tidak menjawab pertanyaan pemuda itu? Jangankan Tuan Guru kami pun dapat menjawabnya kalau Tuan memberikan izin kepada kami untuk menjawabnya. Dan siapakah pemuda itu?".

Tuan Guru menjawab, “Apakah kamu tidak kenal itulah yang dinamakan orang Ahmad az-Zaki Mesir yang berasal dari negeri Patani, bahawa ilmunya melebihi ilmuku. Kalau hanya itu yang ditanyakan mudah saja menjawabnya, namun aku malu sekiranya dia menanyakan hal-hal yang lebih mendalam lagi. Oleh sebab itu aku sengaja tidak menjawab pertanyaannya”.

GURU-GURU BELIAU

Guru-guru Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani yang disebut dalam puisi beliau berjudul Nazham ‘Uqudid Durri adalah seperti berikut:

* Sheikh Umar Asy-Syami Al-Baqa’ie.

Setelah beliau mempelajari pelbagai permasalahan tatacara dan keilmuan para ulama di Mekah, maka jatuhlah pilihannya sebagai tempat dia belajar. Di antaranya yang beliau sebut pada bahagian akhir Nazham ‘Uqudid Durri ialah para gurunya sebelum beliau berangkat ke Mesir dulu.

Masih belum jelas siapakah yang beliau maksudkan dengan Wa bi Syaikhina ad-Dardir dalam nazham itu. Kemungkinan Syeikh Umar bin Barakat asy-Syami al-Baqa’ie yang lahir pada 1245 H/1829 M, dan wafat 1313 H/1896 M, pengarang Syarh ‘Umdah dan lain-lain.

Sebelum Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani pergi ke Mesir dulu (sebelum tahun 1292 H/1875 M), beliau mendalami pelbagai ilmu dalam banyak kitab daripada Sheikh Umar asy-Syami.

Disebut oleh Sheikh Abdullah Mirdad Abul Khair bahawa kepada Sheikh Umar tersebut, Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani mendalami pelbagai kitab seperti: ilmu-ilmu arabiah, usul, tafsir, hadis, fiqh, ma’ani, bayan, ‘arudh dan lain-lain.

Sheikh Umar asy-Syami pula memberi tempat kepada Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani mengajar di Masjid al-Haram Mekah terutama dalam bidang sastera Arab.

Menurut Sheikh Abdullah Mirdad Abu Khair, dalam beberapa buah karangan Sheikh Umar al-Baqa’ie, di antaranya tentang ilmu Bayan, terdapat syair-syair Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Dalam Mafahat ar-Ridhwan oleh Sheikh Zainuddin bin Sheikh Utsman as-Sarawaqi diriwayatkan juga bahawa Sheikh Umar al-Baqa’ie Shahibul Maqamis Sami (empunya makam yang tinggi) dan Hazam (gelaran perempuan yang masyhur pada orang Arab yang benar Arab).

* Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi.

Dimaksudkan pula dengan Mulazina al-Hifni Quthub lit Thariqati qad hada’ dalam nazham yang sama tersebut berkemungkinan adalah Saiyid Husein al-Habsyi.

Nama ‘al-Hifni’ untuk Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi di sini kemungkinan mengambil gelaran yang sama yang pernah diberikan kepada Asy-Syamsu Muhammad Salim al-Hifni.

Tentang ini kedudukan salah satu sanad keilmuan ialah Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani belajar kepada Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi, Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi belajar kepada Saiyid Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan, Saiyid Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan belajar kepada Sheikh Ustman ad-Dimyathi, Sheikh Ustman ad-Dimyathi belajar kepada Sheikh Abdullah asy-Syarqawi, Sheikh Abdullah asy-Syarqawi belajar kepada Asy-Syamsu Muhammad Salim al-Hifni.

Ketika membahas tentang permainan catur nama ‘Hifni’ juga disebut oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani dalam karyanya Hadiqatul al-Azhar, cetakan pertama, halaman 175, “..... seperti barang yang berkata akan dia ‘Hifni’ atasnya....” Nama ‘Hifni’ di sini juga tidak jelas apakah yang dimaksudkan Asy-Syamsu Muhammad Salim al-Hifni atau pun Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi.

Dalam puisi Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani juga menyebut Quthub. Disebabkan Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi dalam beberapa tulisan ulama adalah diakui sebagai seorang Quthub pada zamannya. Maka penulis bertambah yakin bahawa yang dimaksudkan oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani pada nazham/syairnya ialah Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi.

Sheikh Muhammad Mahfuz Termas menyebut bahawa Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi adalah Khatimatull Muhaqqiqin wa ‘Umdatul Fuqaha’ wal Muhadditsin. Ulama yang lain pula menggelarnya dengan Al-Quthbur Rabbaniyul Qurasyisyu.

Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani pada satu catatan menyebut bahawa beliau mendapat ijazah amalan yang bersalasilah sampai kepada Saidina Ali bin Abi Thalib karamahullah wajhah dari Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi. Selain itu guru tersebut memberikan kata-kata pujian atas karyanya yang berjudul Tashilu Naili Amani.

Kata puji-pujinya (taqrizh) Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi itu sentiasa tercantum pada karya Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani itu, iaitu pada terbitan Mekah dan Mesir. Sedangkan pada terbitan di Jawa, Singapura dan Pulau Pinang tidak pernah dicantumkan lagi.

Salah satu sanad, selain sanad-sanad yang lain, tentang pembacaan kitab Hadis Sahih Bukhari.

Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani bertitik mula seperti berikut, iaitu:

* Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani (1272 H/1856M-1325 H/1908M), belajar kepada

* Saiyid Husein Al-Habsyi (wafat 1330 H/ 1912 M), belajar kepada

* Ayahnya, Saiyid Muhammad bin Saiyid Husein al-Habsyi (1213 H/1798-9 M - 1281 H/1864-5 M), belajar kepada

* Sheikh Umar bin Abdul Karim bin Abdur Rasul al-‘Athar, belajar kepada

* Sheikh Ali bin Abdul Barri al-Wana-I, belajar kepada

* Sheikh Abdul Qadir bin Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Andalusi, belajar kepada

* Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Idrisi, belajar kepada

* Al-Quthub Muhammad bin 'Alauddin an-Nahruali, belajar kepada

* Ayahnya Sheikh Falih al-Madani, belajar kepada

* Sheikh Abil Futuh Ahmad bin Abdullah ath-Thawus, belajar kepada

* Baba Yusuf al-Harawi, belajar kepada

* Muhammad bin Syaz Bakhat al-Farghani, belajar kepada

* Abi Luqman Yahya bin Ammar al-Khanlani, belajar kepada

* Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Farbari, belajar kepada

* Imam al-Bukhari

* Saiyid Abu Bakri Syatha.

Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani ada hubungan erat dengan Saiyid Abu Bakri bin Saiyid Muhammad Syatha (wafat 12 Zulhijjah 1310 H/27 Jun 1893 M).

Disebutnya pada nazham Wa bi Syaikhina wa Mulazina al-Bakriy man haza wilayah wal karamah wal huda. Saiyid Abu Bakri Syatha yang lahir tahun 1266 H/1849 M lebih tua kira-kira enam tahun daripada Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani (lahir 1272 H/ 1856 M) sebenarnya sama-sama belajar dengan beberapa orang ulama di Mekah.

Antara guru mereka ialah Saiyid Zaini Dahlan, Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hasbullah al-Makki dan lain-lain.

Saiyid Abu Bakri Syatha adalah seorang ketua telaah (tutor) bagi Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani.

Selepas Saiyid Abu Bakri Syatha selesai menyusun kitab I’anatuth Thalibin, Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hasbullah al-Makki mengadakan ujian penggubahan nazham (puisi).

Penyusun puisi yang terbaik itulah yang akan diberikan kepercayaan untuk mentashhih kitab I’anatuth Thalibin tersebut. Daripada jumlah 35 orang yang menyertai pertandingan itu, ternyata yang memenanginya ialah Sheikh Ahmad bin Muhammad Zain al-Fathani.

Puisi tersebut termaktub dalam cetakan awal kitab itu, dan penulis juga lampirkan terjemahannya dalam artikel ini. Terjemahan lengkap dilakukan oleh salah seorang cicit Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani, iaitu Ustazah Zaharah binti Awang, sebagai berikut:

* Khabar gembira tentang I’anah telah dinamakan menyinari ketinggian dan penerimaan dengan senyuman

* Bergelora kegembiraan hati orang yang berakal dan burung pemikiran menyanyi gembira

* Bangkitlah, berilah padaku minuman yang melegakan maka menyelami ingatanku tempat-tempat keagungan

* Kehadhrat Allah aku mengadu kerinduanku dan berfikir ketika malam yang gelap gulita

* Betapa jalan kembali kepada asalnya dan dengan apakah untuk mengatasi halangan dan kebosanan

* Dia adalah tempat ketenangan, gedung segala kebajikan di Kaabah-Nya hamba-hamba-Nya haji dan ihram

* Allah yang berkuasa dan memberi hidayah kemunculan sinar mentari, kelahiran Islam

* Di kalangan mereka seorang pemuda seperti bulan dipagari bintang-bintang seperti samudera, dilingkari sungai-sungai, airnya melimpah ruah

l Hamparan segala kebaikan ada tempat letak kakinya dan padanya ilmu-ilmu yang melahirkan para ulama

* Saiyid al-Bakri seorang yang berwibawa mempunyai ketinggian cita-cita yang membara

* Dia mujaddid menjadikan kebenaran zamannya dari datuknya yang mengiringi tsiqah/kepercayaan dengan penuh teliti

* Penghulur bantuan kepada para pelajar, ilmu-ilmu dalam kitab al-I’anah dan membina menara-menara dan menyerlahkannya pada yang telah binasa

* Sesungguhnya kitab al-I’anah itu kelebihannya amat tinggi iaitulah kitab yang menerangkan ayat-ayatnya secara terperinci

* Bahkan ia adalah perbendaharaan bernilai bagi yang mencarinya mencukupi bagi tetamu, yang meninggalkannya hina dan bodoh

* Padanya segala kebenaran yang telah tetap baginya menanggung segala kesusahan dan berserah

* Maka balasan untuk pengarangnya dan kelebihannya, hanyalah Allah SWT dengan segala kurniaan dan hadiah kebaikan

* Ya Allah, peliharalah Sheikhnya, iaitu Wali Quthub yang bertakwa perhiasan syariat, dialah ulama yang sertanya kemuliaan yang tinggi.

Penutup

Masih ramai lagi guru Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani yang belum dibicarakan. Penulis hanya membicarakan guru- guru yang hanya disebut oleh beliau dalam puisinya berjudul Nazham Uqudid Durri.

Guru-guru beliau selain yang dinyatakan ini disebut dalam karya-karya beliau yang lain, yang akan dibicarakan lagi seterusnya.

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