12 January 2008 - Objectives of learning silat
It has been acknowledged that among the common objectives of learning silat (my typical common objectives) are:
a) To defend - oneself, immediate family members, belongings, those in need and the nation in general.
b) Recreational/Sports & Self-Development (Physical and Mental)
c) perhaps - to delve into the mysteries and the unknowns whether they are of religious-related domains (i.e. Spiritual/Metaphysical) or simply crave for 'inner powers'.
In this century, internet has played an unquestionable role in promoting silat. Those who possesses keen interest in Silat can simply find abundance of information about them by one click in the search engines.
The good part about the internet in the context of silat promotion is that, the apprentice knows in advance what to be expected out of him/her such as the protocol between the master and the student and some form of brief explanation of what Silat is all about. (Example - is this article that Nadzrin speaks about giving some good tips or insight or overview of Silat)
Back to the common objectives of learning silat – factors (a) and (b) would always be the standard core reasons but factor (c) is usually initiated by certain strong influence that is related to the following:
a) Having watching movies or some stories or perhaps documentaries on television that are of silat and spiritual related aspects,
b) Knowing some friends or close relatives who somehow have demonstrated the 'spiritual forces/powers' that relates to silat.
c) Hearing stories about the 'mystical parts' of silat e.g. By God's Willing, you would be 'invulnerable' during the 'boiling oil bath' session.
d) Even, surprisingly, due to the urge to be 'recognized' in certain community in order not to be called some sort of 'weakling',
e) and the aspiration to become a 'new person' – usually from a 'bad guy' to a 'good guy'.
f) encouragement from close friends, relatives and even from parents who are silat practitioners themselves.
Whatever the reasons, I have discovered an interesting phenomenon, that for those who love challenges for the sake of both spiritual and physical strengths would always be the frontline in Silat. Nothing beats the awesome feeling of 'graduation'. It is when the practitioner feeling mixed excitement and nervousness at the same time.
“Can I pass or can't I?”
Of course, the 'level by level achievements' would really depends on the kind of silat that the practitioner is involved in. Most of the silats nowadays would produce their own modules to benchmark the performance and achievement but usually in the end, some masters would tell them that 'there is no ending in the journey of learning silat'.
In a way, it's like the conventional alma-mater graduation – the good lecturers would tell you 'to move on with life and be more matured or learning never ends.
Thanks Poknik for allowing me to post this as an article in my blog. I liked this article because it contrasted nicely with my rant in 'Monolog for a friend'.
Posted by Mohd Nadzrin Wahab
I like the 3 classification of standard methods - Impression, Expression, Activation respectively.
What I can understand having reading the concepts are :
a. Impression - is the method requiring standard module - e.g. the opponent punches, the person blocks.
'Impression' in this sense is 'memorizing'.
b. Expression - is the method requiring standard module on serving as reference -
i) e.g. the opponent punches, the person blocks followed by counter attack. (the counter attack is not necessarily taught in the module).
ii) e.g. why would sandbags be tied on legs while running on the sand by the seaside? - the answer would be probably to train your 'kicks' and 'jumps' much 'lighter' and 'agile' after a while of this gruelling training.
It is also a form of leg exercise and would help in 'muscle building'.
- thus 'Impression' is actually 'understanding' (why)
c) Activation completes the Impression and Expression. It's like learning the silat history and become part of silat life evolution
- thus 'Activation' is 'the way of life'.
Whether the students like them or not, one factor cannot survive without the other factor complementing it.
To become a really good student, he/she must undergo all the 3 phases without skipping any one of them.
10 January 2008
Buah, Born or Barakah: The Nurture, Nature and Gnosis of Silat
by : Mohd Nadzrin Wahab
It is a standard scene. The student has come here to study silat. He harbours a personal goal in wanting to be able to defend himself. It may be for revenge, for protection, for self-development or simply for recreation.
He sees the other students milling about, talking about things other than martial arts until one of them becomes aware of the teacher approaching. He is the first to stand at attention followed by the others.
The teacher says a few words and indicates the beginning of the class. The students salute the teacher, their friends and begin training. Here, the commonality of this scene fractures into three separate realities.
In one reality, the teacher asks one of his students to strike him in the chest. One obligingly does and is met with an evasion and a parry, a strike to the vitals, usually just indicated, followed up with a lock or takedown.
The teacher then repeats it a few more times, ensuring they remember what they see. Once he is satisfied, he tells them to copy his exact movements and apply them on their partners. End of scene one.
In a second reality, the teacher has prepared his student for months in the field. The work he does on the farm has given him proficiency in his physique.
When he executes the wardance, it is something neither master nor student has seen before. It comes naturally to him, and yet, each blossoming of the hands and prancing of the feet are calculated, as if reacting to an unseen enemy.
Every angle is in his control, every imbalance correctable, every muscle in its proper place, every beat of the accompanying rhythm matched note for note. His movements are both pleasing to the eye and intoxicating to the self. End of scene two.
In a third reality, the teacher sits in front of his student and clasps his right hand, or recites some verses into a glass of water, which he drinks, or pats the small of his back, or, or, or... Almost immediately, the student feels empowered, as if his sinews have been charged by a battery. He is pit against a senior student and they fight.
He defends successfully against all his senior's attacks and manages to beat him back and wins the round. He has never studied a martial art before. End of scene three.
Three foreign students who come to Malaysia with the specific intention of studying Silat Melayu may get a shock of their lives when they meet each other at the airport to compare notes on their way home.
Each of them has trained in a different system with different methods and has been indoctrinated with a different idea of what silat is. None of them can comprehend what the other is rambling about because the methods they studied make no sense. Is this a familiar problem?
Impression, Expression, Activation
The truth is that all three methods are considered standard practise by many Melayu martial artists in Malaysia. Ironically, because of the often exclusiveness of major Silat Melayu styles in Malaysia, not many pesilat are aware of alternative training methods. That is, alternative to their own.
The Impression Method (IM), which is technique or buah-based, relies heavily on the impression of the syllabus upon the mind and physique of the student.
This involves the creation of standardised blocks of movement with a set beginning and an end. The student begins with nothing and is taught to mimic and act out the blocks and eventually string them together.
The key characteristics of this system is the initial rigidity of the process, the stressing of reflex as against analytical thought and the belief that a particular block of movements (often termed technique) are a result of strenuous research and is the best possible answer to a particular incursion.
Although the term ‘buah’ is also used to describe any strikeform that makes contact with the opponent, even if it isn’t a reflex action but a result of strategic analysis, most modern Malaysian Silat styles subscribe to this impression method to achieve immediate results.
The advantages are numerous. It keeps the student’s attention focused upon the apparent physical goals of silat: that is learning how to fight. It creates a realistic setting in which the student learns: reacting off a partner who is simulating violence.
It also allows for minimal supervision of a large group: several instructors could monitor a group of hundreds. It allows for training of large numbers of students in a short span and it also produces immediate results: The student usually apply the technique drilled into him almost immediately.
Disadvantages of IM
Unfortunately, there are two sides to every coin. A fighting-focused student usually shies away from the more esoteric aspects of the art such as ethics, responsibility, philosophy, religion, etc. Only a small percentage actually do find themselves interested in such topics and even less finally adopt it as an integral part of their worldview.
Secondly, a realistic setting doesn’t necessarily mean real. A reflex-conditioned fighter may find himself dealing with situations that were not inherent in his training. Since his analytical mind has already been trained to take a back seat to his reflexes, he may survive by sheer effort, but will rarely escape unscathed.
Thirdly, large group training creates minor mistakes and bad habits that unless attended to personally by a trained instructor (and not mass-produced carbon copy yes-men), could result in the ineffectiveness of the technique when applied combatively, or worse, muscular and ligament injury that will lead to permanent damage.
Fourthly, strict IM style training often mentally cages a student and teaches him to think within the box and rarely outside of it. This cuts off important avenues of creative and lateral thinking in problem solving. In combat, life or death hangs in the balance.
IM arts have been very popular in Malaysia because of their apparent systematic pedagogical style and are quite well represented among the major silat styles. Silat Seni Gayong, Silat Cekak and Silat Lincah are some of the better examples. Each of them has encountered the setbacks of the Impression Method and have compensated for them in their own ways.
For example, in Silat Cekak, after the initial memorisation and drilling of the standardised buah to completion, students are taken through a Skill Set. Unusual and sneaky attack styles are introduced, of which no standard answer was provided for in the syllabus. Students are guided to analyse the tools provided in the memorised buah and apply them in their unique fashion to counter these new threats.
Next is the Expression Method (EM). Counter to IM, the Expression Method seeks to draw personal ability out of the student and makes his thinking a large part of the development process.
Instead of forcing him to accept indoctrination, he is guided through several stages of empowerment, namely physical (re)education, attitude orientation, affinity identification, skill development and practical application.
Because of the unpredictability and delicate psychological processes involved, it can sometimes take years or a matter of months before any noticeable change can be observed. This training method can also be described as experience-guided learning. It is the hallmark of many traditional martial arts and to be fair, traditional education.
A fictional scene reflects this training orientation. A student who had come to study from a silat master was told he had to perform physical duties around his master’s home. The reason is often and justifiably so, that if the master was to devote time to training him, his energies couldn’t be put to sustaining his livelihood.
However, tending to the garden or performing menial tasks served a double purpose. It was meant to educate the student in physical efficiency. Not only would he be taught to swing a hoe properly – using minimal strength and maximum leverage – to reduce long term physical damage and increase work efficiency, he would obviously receive superb physical conditioning.
Going to the gym always ends up with no productivity and glistening muscles, but farmwork got you that and potatoes as well.
Doing work would eventually bore the young student and once in a while, for displaying patience, kindness, diligence – and other good qualities that the master would have deliberately inculcated within him – he would be rewarded with a lesson of empowerment.
The master then identifies the student’s strength in a particular area and develops him towards mastering that end. If his coordination leans toward high fighting, his skills would be developed in that direction.
If he seems comfortable on the ground, then ground fighting and so on. However, the student wouldn’t be forced into any direction, simply given the opportunity to develop.
Finally, the student is given the opportunity to see for himself what he has achieved. He is tested not for what he has learned from his master, but for what he has discovered about himself.
Thus, confidence-breakers such as wrestling with wild animals, engaging full-fledged masters of rival schools, jumping into pits full of sharpened bamboo or being buried alive ensure that the student brings not his master with him to his tests, but that he has all the tools already at hand. He just had to discover them with a little help.
Silat & Karate Kid?
Two very interesting examples of this traditional method come to mind. The first was told to the author. A student who wished to study silat was given farmwork to carry out.
However, the master didn’t teach him anything but used to hit him in the back of the head. When asked why, he replied that it was his own fault for not being wary.
Soon after, the student was sensitive enough to his surroundings to sense his master’s approach. After several sad attempts, he finally discovered the most effective and least painful way to parry his blows.
When the master was satisfied, he began throwing stones, requiring the student to master evasions. And so on, and so on.
Eventually, he developed his own martial art, not from being taught, but from guided self-discovery. As they say, necessity IS the mother of creation.
Another example is, ironically, a scene from the first Karate Kid movie when Miyagi sensei (played by the late Pat Morita) had tasked his impatient student Daniel with waxing his cars and painting his fence.
Not realizing what Miyagi sensei was doing, Daniel did what he was told, but in order to make the process smoother, naturalised the tasks with as little muscle inhibition as possible.
He interacted with the curves on the cars and the grains on the fence, until the movements became second nature to him. Yet, they were not combat moves. That is, until Miyagi sensei decoded them for him.
That sudden discovery led to others and the method of trying without trying was made clear to him, as to many other students of the traditional martial arts.
Naturally, the advantages include a complete education that shapes and coordinates both aspects of the mind and body. A deepened understanding of the physical and psychological self rids one of muscular and mental inhibition, which could prove disastrous in combat situations.
It makes the adherent a master of himself and a student of none and frees his mind from mental barriers. He thinks in three dimensions and automatically chooses the path of least resistance and most profit.
Most of the students who study this way have an affinity for the esoteric and live their lives by the philosophy that they have been taught/ discovered.
Because of the understanding of his abilities, he is not tied down to one style of fighting, but adapts to the threat, irrespective of whether it comes from man or beast. In silat, this was eventually coded into the form of tari, bunga or kembangan. These flowing forms which have been compared to kata in effect educate the player about himself.
The degree is in Self-Discovery. His core courses are physics, biology, chemistry, biomechanics, balance and percussion while his elective courses are attitude adjustment, psychology, neurolinguistic programming and so on. When he graduates, it is with the ability to control himself. And self-control facilitates the control of others.
EM in Senaman
Today, this method is rarely used in the major silat styles but exist primarily in small, rural silat groups and one on one sessions. However, a modern method is currently practiced in Silat Melayu Keris Lok 9 as founded by guru Azlan Ghanie.
The method, popularly known as Senaman Tua redefines silat tari and kembangan into static calisthenic exercises that seek to reeducate the physical culture of the human being.
Disadvantages of EM
Sadly, what was good for IM is not for EM. Training in this method could never produce a ready army on hand, nor can it create cohesion for lack of a solid common identity among students.
A student who is unaware of the process may even become bored, disenchanted and eventually leave his master for other 'greener' pastures. Because of the due attention a master has to provide, this also means groups larger than ten would be difficult to control or monitor.
The third method is the Activation Method (AM). Depending on who you speak to, this can be spiritual, supernatural or psychological in nature. However you want to label it, AM deals with the direct activation of hidden potential within the human being and can be carried out in a number of ways.
It begins with the assumption that every human being is imbued with innate potential for movement. They say, everyone is born with it.
Some call it Gerak (motion), Ibu Gerak (source of motion), Ibu Gayong (source of divine motion), al-Aql al-Awwal (the first mind), Barakah (divine gift), The First Principle, etc.
Whereas IM sought to mold the student to accept the art and EM sought to have the art developed by the student, AM simply bypasses the body and mind and goes straight to the soul and activates the ‘art’ from there.
Scientifically, there is no explanation. Some may try to wave it away as hypnosis, hoaxes or even plain delusion. Since this method is, at best, incredible, I shall proceed to only discuss those examples which have been documented.
In one instance, Ustaz Azam, the Khalifah Perang (War Caliph) of Persatuan Seni Silat Gayong Maarifat Malaysia claimed in an advertisement that "By participating in this Gerak Laksamana course … the caliph/ caliph’s representative will open the door of your body’s ‘batin’ energy … in a short period you will be able to explore any form of silat … perform silat movements and master complex combat techniques".
The advert goes on to explain "It should be mentioned that this energy door is present in all human beings and all masters or practitioners of ilmu batin who are experts are able to open these batin doors within the human body".
"By mastering the knowledge of true internal energy which lies within the human being there is no need for requesting of assistance from jin or other superstitious aspects".
Is the statement an oxymoron? Apparently, it isn’t for many Malaysians who took the advert in stride.
Another explanation is given by guru Abdul Karim Mat Shah of Silat Semula Jadi (Natural Silat). According to him, silat (self-defence) is inherent knowledge in the self. It is present even in a baby who blinks when one attempts to touch his eyes.
The difference here lies is his attestation that training is a must. He stressed that without physical training, ‘natural’ motion cannot translate into movement. He describes the ‘natural’ motion akin to an electric shock.
"It’s like a flowing current… we can sense the enemy’s pulse (intent). We instinctively know his movement and can move anywhere (he goes)"."Silat Semula Jadi will only come to those who really want it to. It will seep into the body if it is really wanted. Within a month, it can be done, if it is really wanted," he repeats.
However, these attempts at clarification often fog the issue and leave the devout Muslim scratching his head (not to mention the pronounced skeptics).
Ustaz Zainuddin Othman of Silat Sendeng Nusantara, a religious teacher of sufistic background gives it a more Islamic spin.
In his explanation, he calls it Ibu Gayong."… in reality, Ibu Gayong is a secret of the soul that emanates from every human being, conferred by Allah to us, which is called reflective movement. In the sufi’s language, it is Al-‘Aql Al-Awwal, or the pure soul".
He gave the example of the Holy Prophet Muhammad PBUH who wrestled two Arab wrestling champions, Al Aswad and Rukanah, and won.
"How did he win, when he wasn’t even an expert in wrestling? Clearly, he had stepped forward to prove that subscription to Allah’s strength is far more powerful than depending on one’s own … therefore, defensive reflective motion arose from his submission to Allah".
A more graphic and practical display was described by Ustaz Wan Kamarulzaman Wan Abdul Aziz, founder of Persilatan Gerak Suci Mangkubumi. When he first made known his intention of studying a silat style named Silat Gerakan Suci, the master guru Wan Asri initiated him with some H2O.
"He gave me a glass of water and immediately, I could extrapolate movements. But my movements were too fast, they were uncontrollable. It came quickly, just as when we first learn to drive a car, just as uncontrollable. After you get your licence, then you’ve mastered it," he quipped.
According to Ustaz Wan, this ‘motion’ exists in all human beings. It only has to be ‘activated’ so that it may be used consciously. He gives the example of reflexive movements that occur during sleep.
"Motion in this silat is a result of our supplications (to Allah) and our spiritual practices … in other silat, the physical is taught first, such as buah, kuncian and such, but in Gerakan Suci, the ‘gerak’ method is given priority".
"Initially, when I began teaching, I also favoured the ‘gerak’ method … but I noticed it wasn’t appropriate. The emanated movements depend on the practitioner. If he has studied silat before, his movements are beautiful".
"But, for those with no silat basics … pandemonium. Some just start rolling around. The silat movements are just rubbish. No artistry whatsoever … that is why … I began teaching the physical aspect first".
It may surprise many to know even though the three methods (IM, EM and AM) seem different, but many perguruan of the former two also subscribe to the AM concept, albeit later, much later in the training.
Sometimes, this is because of the situation that Ustaz Wan faced early on in his teaching career, others because it is considered the highest secret of their perguruan.
Personally, I have only experienced examples of IM and EM but have yet to sample AM. It would make an interesting article should it ever happen. In any case, all three methods, and more besides, exist in all Silat Melayu to a certain degree or other.
To be able to determine the extent of subscription, surveys have to be done on a case by case basis, and because of the secrecy surrounding most of these practices/ beliefs, it mostly has to be done by participative observation.
Whatever method you chose to train in, you’ll almost always have an interesting tale to tell your mates back home, of pain, ecstasy or pandemonium.
 Sheikh Shamsuddin S. M. Salim, The Malay Art of Self Defence: Silat Seni Gayong, North Atlantic Books, 2005.
 PSSCUHM, Silat Cekak Hanafi: Peneraju Warisan Mutlak, Kuala Lumpur.
 Mohd Zainudin Ismail, 2001.
 Senaman Tua VCD Vol 1, 2003.
 SENI BELADIRI April 2000, p59.
 Jin or Djinn, an Arab word used to classify all non-corporeal creatures which are not from the Angelic Hierarchy in Islamic theology.
 SENI BELADIRI February 2001, p8.
 SENI BELADIRI September 2002, pp7 and 17.
 SENI BELADIRI August 2002, pp7, 28 and 29.
"O Allah! We seek goodness from Your Knowledge and with Your Power (and Might) We seek strength, and We ask from You Your Great Blessings, because You have the Power and We do not have the power. You Know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action (We are about to take) is better for my religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then make it destined for us and make it easy for us and then add blessings [baraka'] in it, for us. O Allah! In Your Knowledge if this action is bad for us, bad for our religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then turn it away from us and turn us away from it and whatever is better for us, ordain [destine] that for us and then make us satisfied with it."
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Importance of a good shaykh by Shaykh Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi Allahu anhu
Al Ghawth al-Adham Shaykh Sayyad Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi 'Allahu anhu said: You must work hard to ensure that your hearts are not locked out of the door of His nearness. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must seek the company of a Shaykh who is learned in the law [hukm] and knowledge ['ilm] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), and who will show you the way toward Him. Without seeing the successful [muflih], one cannot succeed. If a person does not seek the company of scholars who put their knowledge into practice ['ulama 'ummal], he is a chicken from an egg abandoned by the rooster and the mother hen.
Seek the fellowship of those who enjoy fellowship with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). What each of you should do, when the night has grown dark and people have gone to bed and their voices are silent, is get up, take an ablution [yatawadda'], perform two cycles of ritual prayer [yusalli rak'atain] and say: "O my Lord, guide me to one of Your righteous servants near to You, so that he may guide me toward You and make me familiar with Your path." The instrument [sabab] is necessary. Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) was quite capable of guiding [His servants] to Him without the Prophets [anbiya']. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must awaken from your heedless folly. As the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: If someone relies entirely on his own subjective judgement, he will go astray. Try to find someone who will be a mirror for the face of your religion [din], just as you look in the mirror to check the appearance of your outer face, your turban and your hair. Be sensible! What is this crazy foolishness? You say, "I don't need anyone to teach me," and yet the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: The believer is the believer's mirror [al-mu'minu mir'atu 'l-mu'min].
When the believer's faith is sound, he comes to be a mirror for all creatures. They behold their religious faces [wujuh adyanihim] reflected in the mirror of his speech, every time they see him and get close to him. What is this craziness? Not a moment goes by without your begging Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) to provide you with more than you already have to eat, to drink, and to wear, with more sexual opportunities and more income. These are not things that could increase or decrease, even if you were to be joined in your plea by every supplicant whose prayers are answered [da 'in mujab].
Supplication [da 'wa] will neither increase one's sustenance by so much as an atom, nor reduce it by an atom. This is a foregone conclusion [mafrugh minhu]. You must devote your attention to doing what you have been commanded to do, and to avoiding what you have been forbidden to do. You should not worry about that which is bound to come your way, because He guarantees that it will come to you. Allotted shares [aqsam] arrive at their appointed times, whether they be sweet or bitter, whether you like them or dislike them.
The people [of the Way] attain to a condition in which they no longer have any prayer of supplication [du'a] or request [su'al] to make. They do not beg [in their prayers] to gain advantages, nor to get rid of disadvantages. Their supplication comes to be a matter concerning their hearts, sometimes for their own sake and sometimes for the sake of all creatures, so they utter the prayer of supplication without conscious premeditation [fi ghaiba].
"O '' Allah, endow us with good behaviour in Your company under all circumstances!
[When the believer's faith is sound], fasting [sawm], prayer [salat], remembrance [dhikr] and all acts of obedience [ta 'at] become second nature to him, mingled with his flesh and blood. Then he receives protection from Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) under all circumstances. The restraint of the law [hukm] does not desert him, not for an instant, while he is on this course. The law comes to be like the vessel in which he sits, as he travels over the ocean of the power [qudra] of his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He). He goes on traveling over it until he arrives at the shore of the hereafter, at the shore of the ocean of grace and the hand of nearness. Thus he is sometimes in the company of creatures and at certain times in the company of the Creator. His work and toil are with creatures, while his relaxation is with the Creator.
From Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, "The Sublime Revelation (Al-Fath ar-Rabbani)," translated by Muhtar Holland (Al-Baz Publishing, Houston, 1992), p. 426-8.
Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him. (It was related by al-Bukhari)
“Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”
Sunday, January 20, 2008
12 January 2008 - Objectives of learning silat
Sunday, January 6, 2008
3 June 2005 / 25 Rabiul Akhir 1426
Striving for Halal Sources of Income
My brothers in Islam,
I would like to remind myself, and my dear brothers, to constantly have taqwa to Allah s.w.t. We can do this by following what Islam has taught us, be doing all that Allah has commanded us to do, and avoiding everything that He has forbidden.
Islam teaches us to work with diligence and to give our best in everything that we do. As an exemplary ummah, we should strive to give our best, to work hard to produce good results. The question is: What constitutes a commendable working attitude?
Insya Allah, today’s’ khutbah will discuss on the Islamic concept on the best way to earn our living.
Allah says in surah Al-Baqarah, ayat 198:
Which means: There is no sin on you if you seek the Bounty of your Lord.
This verse clearly tells us to seek Allah’s bounty that awaits those who worked hard for. For Allah s.w.t has made this Earth full of sustenance for His servants. Allah s.w.t has guarantee that everyone will receive his due share or rizq, or sustenance from Allah.
So Allah forbids us from being idle, and just hoping others for donations or assistance. Instead, Allah s.w.t commands us to go out and work. Earn an honest living, to sustain ourselves and our families. For everyone will receive what he strives for. The measure of things he will receive will depend on how much effort he exert to achieve it. Allah is Most Just. If one works hard, Allah will give him the justifiable rewards for his commendable efforts. On the other hand, if one is being lazy, Allah will not give him the same rewards that Allah gives to those who work hard.
Allah says in surah An-Najm, ayat 39:
Which means: And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad).
My brothers in Islam,
We all know that Allah commands us to earn our living from Halal sources. This is stated in many verses in Al-Quran, among them, the verse 114 in Surah An-Nahl:
Which means: So eat of the lawful and good food which Allâh has provided for you. And be grateful for the Graces of Allâh, if it is He Whom you worship.
Thus, we must ensure that our sources of income are Halal. But how to ensure that they are Halal?
The answer, is to ensure out sources of income do not contain elements that Allah has forbidden.
Allah has forbidden all things that will bring harm or destroy the our spiritual self, our physical self, our mind, our wealth and our family lineage.
On this ground, everything that destroys or harms our wealth and our mind is Haram. And everything that relates to those Haram things, is also considered as Haram. Such as assisting companies that deals with Haram things.
In order to ensure that our sources of income are Halal, we need to sit down and do some self check. Does our income come from Halal sources? Do we want our children to grow up on foods that come from Haram sources? When Rasulullah s.a.w has said in a hadith narrated by Imam Tirmizi:
Which means: There is no benefit for flesh that grew from Haram sources, except that Hell is a better place for that flesh.
So let us ensure that our the flesh that grows on our body, and on our children’s bodies does not come from Haram sources.
My brothers in Islam,
Allah forbids us from deriving our sources of income from games of chance such gambling, betting and such. This is because the money that we will earn from such sources does not come from our own sweat and toil. But on factors that are beyond our control, factors that are based on chances and fortunes. Factors that will bring about destruction to our wealth and family ties.
Halal sources are those that came from our own efforts. Not from relying on chances. In this respect, Rasulullah s.a.w. said in a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari:
Which means: There is no food that is better for one to eat other than what he earned from his own hand.
That is why we can see that every prophet worked for their living. They did not rely on donations from other people. The Prophet Muhammad s.a.w himself has camels and sheep for his livelihood. He himself milked his own sheep. He did not rely on others to support him. And he is the greatest Prophet. He is Allah’s selected servant. If he did not work at all, that will not be a problem for him. For Allah will provide everything that he wants. But our Prophet Muhammad s.a.w worked with his two hands. Why? It is an example to the rest of us so that we will likewise earn our living, and not just rely on assistance from others or from games of chances.
We should never think that we are not able to find Halal source of income or that we will forever be poor if we do not indulge in income that is forbidden by Allah. Allah s.w.t has promised us our rizq, our sustenance, according to our needs.
Of course, everything is in Allah’s knowledge. The amount of rizq that we will receive from Allah is determined by Him, from his infinite knowledge on our capabilities and what we will do in the future.
But we do not know how much is that. Only Allah knows. So we must always strive harder to earn our living from Halal sources. We must never sit down and sigh that nothing we do can change our bad luck, our poverty. For that will bring about Allah’s anger.
We need to do only three things: to plan, to strive and to seek Allah’s help.
We make careful planning to find Halal sources of income. And we work hard for it. Give out best. And we pray to Allah, asking Him to grant us continued Halal income, and to bless it. Insya Allah, the food that we eat, that we put on our table, is Halal and blessed by Allah. For there is nothing greater than Allah’s blessing.
Insya Allah, next week’s khutbah will discuss further on one source of Haram income that is quite pervasive in these days.
Trade and commerce have always been a part of Islam. From pre-Islamic days, the Holy City of Mecca has been the center of commercial activities. It was indeed the annual trading center of Mecca that provided Prophet Mohammad the forum for preaching Islam.
The early Muslims were not only engaged in trade but they went to distant lands in connection with business. Islam in fact reached East and West Africa, East Asia through the business people.
Islam encourages work in general, and trade and commerce in particular, Prophet Mohammad was himself engaged in this profession before he became a prophet. He was a successful businessman. Known for integrity, he bore the honorific title, the Trustworthy, The Quran states:
"God has made business lawful for you"
In addition, the Qur'an includes rules not only for manners and hygiene, marriage and divorce, but it also lays down detailed rules for commerce and politics, interest and debts, contracts and wills, and industry and finance. Islam has permitted and in fact encouraged business. Islam lays out the basic principles of our economic behavior as consumers, producers and owners of wealth.
The Islamic principle in business is based on individual enterprise and correspondingly individual's reward. It is basically based on benefiting the humanity while maintaining God�s orders.
In business relationships Islam strictly forbids any discrimination between people based on their religion, sex, or gender.
There is no basic conflict between good business practice and profit making in Islam. Islam looks at profit as secondary way to measure efficiency. Business Ethics in Islam
1. Trust: Trust of God's creation and all that is in it. God has created and perfected the whole universe then Man is set over it all with delegated. So as Muslims we realize that we are just trustee for God�s universe and we truly do not owe anything in this life. That kind of belief along with your knowledge that God sees all what you do, will make you work under constant surveillance, and keeps your performance at its best while following God�s defined conduct.
(Quran 45-13): And He has subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold, in that are Signs indeed for those who reflect.
(Quran 6:164): It is He who hath made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He hath raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He hath given you: for thy Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
2. Justice and Honesty: Justice can be defined as just conduct, fairness exercise of authority in maintenance of right and fair dealing between each other regardless of faith is strictly laid down in Islam. Honesty incorporates the concepts of truthfulness and reliability and covers all aspects of relationships in human life thought, word and action. It is more than just accuracy; it is an attitude with integrity.
Quran 4:135): O ye who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.
Quran 6:115): Perfected is the Word of thy Lord in truth and justice. There is naught that can change His words. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
Quran 11:85): O my people! Give full measure and full weight in justice, and wrong not people in respect of their goods
Oh ye who believe! Eat not up each other's property by unfair and dishonest means." (4:29)
3. Mutual Respect: The third principle is mutual respect and consideration for others is also inherent in the moral teachings of Islam.
The application of this has come to mean that self interest only has a place in the community in as much as it takes into account the interests of others. So a person or organization can not under self benefit measures takes an action or start a business that will harm the community or environment more than providing good to it. The prophet (PBUH) said: "You will not attain righteousness, unless you give of that which you love�. And said "God loves kindness when you deal with any matter" And also said: "You will not enter Paradise until you have faith and you will not have faith until you love one another".
What is forbidden in business in Islam?
1. Islam has not permitted producing, selling and purchasing of goods, which are prohibited in Islamic law. Alcohol, Drugs.. The Prophet of Islam has said: "When God prohibits a thing He prohibits (giving and receiving) the price of it as well."
2. Islam has also prohibited any kind of transaction involving uncertainty, as this could lead to quarrel or litigation. The Prophet of Islam has forbidden transaction involving unspecified quantity, acceptance of money for fish in the river or bird in the air as there is element of uncertainty. Similarly the Prophet of Islam has prohibited sale of fruit till they are ripened. However; if the element of uncertainty is very small, the transactions are permissible.
3. Islam condemns hoarding to make high profit at the cost of public interest (when it is needed or so it will become needed). Islam, however; allows normal trade - buying and selling of goods again and again at a reasonable profit.
4. Islam prohibits fraud in business dealings. The Prophet has said: "Sell the good and bad separately. He who deceives is not of us" The sin of fraud is greater if the seller supports it by swearing falsely. The Prophet has said, "Swearing produces ready sale but blots out blessing".
5. Islam prohibits buying or selling what's legal if we know that it will be used for illegal use: weapons, abortion drugs, drugs for meth making, and so on.
6. INTEREST: Muslims are not allowed to pay or receive interest. The Quran is explicit about it and says, "God- has permitted for you trade and prohibited interest" (2 : 275).
Depositors in an Islamic bank would be treated like shareholders, would receive dividends when the bank makes a profit, and would lose capital when it suffers a loss.
The prohibition or fixed interest flows from Islam's concern for social justice Interest is said to reinforce a tendency for wealth to accumulate in a few hands
So how would you by buy a house for example? A new trend has recently started that work as follows: An Islamic financing company buys the house. The house then is leased back to you for a fixed period of time. You pay the finance group the rent value plus an additional amount for the house purchase. The value or the lease home will be reassessed every year, and the rent will be adjusted accordingly. In Closing
To close let me reassure that it is the responsibility of every Muslim to be ethical in their daily business practices and to act responsibly toward the community in which it serves. To review its business practices and remove from its organization any unlawful activities and devote themselves to productive and lawful activities that benefit mankind.
It is everyone's responsibility to take a long and serious look at their organization and implement policies and procedures that are conducive.
As a general guide to Muslims in business we should adopt the following overriding principals:
- Love God and his commands more than your trade or business
- Be honest and truthful
- Keep one's word
- Be humble in how you conduct your life
- Do not deal in fraud
- Do not bribe
- Deal justly
The Islamic Education And Services Institute
Adam (Arabic آدم), also spelt Adham or Aadam, is the first prophet of Islam and mentioned in the Qur'an as the husband of Eve (Hawwa).
ٓٮِٕكَةِ ٱسۡجُدُواْ لِأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ (٣٤
And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.
7:11 Walaqad khalaqnakum thumma sawwarnakum thumma qulna lilmalaikati osjudoo liadama fasajadoo illa ibleesa lam yakun mina alssajideena
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; not so Iblis; He refused to be of those who bow down.
Illa ibleesa aba an yakoona maAAa alssajideena
Not so Iblis: he refused to be among those who prostrated themselves.
15:32 Qala ya ibleesu ma laka alla takoona maAAa alssajideena
((Allah)) said: "O Iblis! what is your reason for not being among those who prostrated themselves?"
38:74 Illa ibleesa istakbara wakana mina alkafireena
Not so Iblis: he was haughty, and became one of those who reject Faith.
38:75 Qala ya ibleesu ma manaAAaka an tasjuda lima khalaqtu biyadayya astakbarta am kunta mina alAAaleena
((Allah)) said: "O Iblis! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to one whom I have created with my hands? Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?"
Adam in Hadith
The early Muslim commentator Tabari adds a number of details to the Torah, based on claimed hadith as well as specific Jewish traditions (so-called isra'iliyyat). Tabari records that when it came time to create Adam, Allah sent Gabriel (Arabic: Jibril), then Michael (Arabic: Mika'il), to fetch clay from the earth; but the earth complained, saying I take refuge in Allah from you, if you have come to diminish or deform me, so the angels returned empty-handed. Tabari goes on to state that Allah responded by sending the Angel of Death, who took clay from all regions, hence providing an explanation for the variety of appearances of the different races of mankind.
According to Tabari's account, after receiving the breath of Allah, Adam remained a dry body for 40 days, then gradually came to life from the head downwards, sneezing when he had finished coming to life, saying "Praised be Allah (al-hamd li-allah)". Having been created, Adam, the first man, is described as having been given dominion over all the lower creatures, which he proceeds to name. As one of the people to whom Allah is said to have spoken to directly, Adam is seen as a prophet in Islam.
According to the Sahih Bukhari, Adam was created about thirty meters in height. Since then the stature of human beings is being diminished continuously. (8:74:246)
At this point, Adam takes a prominent role in Islamic traditions concerning the fall of Satan. In these, when Allah announces his intention of creating Adam, some of the angels express dismay, asking why He (Allah) would create a being that would do evil. Teaching Adam the names reassures the angels as to Adam's abilities, though commentators dispute which particular names were involved; various theories say they were the names of all things animate and inanimate, the names of the angels, the names of his own descendants, or the names of Allah.
In the Muslim tradition, Satan (Iblis, Arabic for Lucifer), is regarded as a jinn and made out of fire, rather than an angel made out of light. This supports the Islamic notion of angels being creations that would not be accountable since they lack free will. When Allah commands the angels to bow to Adam, Satan is also present and refuses due to his pride, and is summarily banished from the heavens. Liberal movements within Islam have viewed Allah's commanding the angels to bow before Adam as an exaltation of humanity, and as a means of supporting human rights.
More extended versions of the fall of Satan also exist in works such as that of Tabari, and the Shi'a commentator al-Qummi. In these explanations Iblis is sent against his fellow jinn, who had angered Allah by sin and fighting. In such versions where Satan leads the battle on Allah's behalf, rather than his own, it is the pride and conceit resulting from his victory which results in his expulsion, since pride is seen as a sin. In other accounts this pride is based on Adam's creation itself, which incites Satan's resentment: he was created from fire, while Adam was created from the (lower) substances of sand, dirt, or mud; so Satan refuses to bow in submission to a creation made out of a "lower" substance. Islamic traditions based on the Qur'an further record that, in vengeful anger, Iblis promises Allah that he will lead as many humans astray as he can, to which Allah replies that it is the choice of humans - those who so desire will follow Satan, while those who so desire will follow Allah.
Al-Qummi records the opinion that Eden was not on earth but in heaven. After disobeying Allah, Allah sends Adam and Eve to earth, arriving first at mountain peaks outside Mecca; Adam on Safa, and Eve on Marwa. In this account, Adam remained weeping for 40 days, until he repented, at which point Allah rewarded him by sending down the Kaaba, and teaching him the hajj. Other Islamic traditions hold that Adam was moved to Sri Lanka, as the next best thing to Eden, and, viewing Adam as having been a giant, human size having shrunk drastically before the great flood, Adam's Peak is said to contain his giant footprint.
The Qur'an also describes the two sons of Adam (named Qabil and Habil in Islamic tradition, but not mentioned by name in the Qur'an) that correspond to Cain and Abel. In fact, Qabil and Habil are the Arabic names of Cain and Abel.
*Dr., Department of Government and Civilization Studies Faculty of Human Ecology Universiti Putra, Malaysia - E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nearly all primitives and the people in ancient civilization believe that God answers prayers if they are performed in the proper ritualistic way. After reading and analyzing the Ahadith of the Prophet (s.a.w) in Kitab al-Tibb of Sahih Bukhari, it is found that Islam has its own way of prevention and treatment of disease caused by Jinn and Devil, known to some people as supernatural powers. Imam al-Bukhari in his Sahih Bukahri has decided to provide special chapter relating to al-Ruqyah with the Qur’an and the Du`a (prayer).
Key words: The Medicine of the Prophet (al-Tibb al-Nabawi); Ruqyah with the Qur’an, Ruqyah with the Du`a (the Prayer); and Ruqyah with the Mu`awwidhat Verses.
Muslim’s Views on al-Ruqyah
Before we mention the common verses of the Qur’an and how they were used in ruqyah, let we look on briefly the Muslim’s view in regard to the use of the Qur’anic verses in ruqyah. We have to bear in mind that whatever the concept of Islam have been discussed, there is pro and contra on the issue. In this regard, there was a debate among the Muslims on ruqyah with reciting of Quranic verses, du`a and muawwidhat over a sick person for purpose of treatment of disease. Some people held of the opinion that it is not permissible especially for ordinary people to use the Qur’an to treat a disease by ruqyah. Others viewed, it is permissible to use it with the condition that the Raqi, the one who recites verse of the Qur’an or du`a, has sufficient knowledge and has to know recitation of the Qur’an, that he used in ruqyah, besides he has to be sound belief, righteous and pious (taqwa) person. This view is mainly based on the Qur’anic verses stating that man may use its verses in treatment of disease because al-Qur’an is itself cure (shifa’) as Allah (s.w.t) said: “We reveal of the Qur’an what is healing and merciful for the believers,” This verse indicates that al-Qur’an is not only a source of legal and illegal matters but also a source of healing. The term Shifa’, which is one of the names of the al-Qur’an, applies that al-Qur’an is a book of healing and restoration of health.
Al-Ruqyah with the Qur’an
Imam Bukhari listed down the Ahadith of the Prophet (s.a.w) on al-Ruqyah with the Qur’an in many chapters of kitab al-tibb. Among them are: chapter on al-Ruqya with the Qur’an and the Mu`wwidhat (Bab al-Ruqa bi al-Quran wa al-Mu`awwizat); chapter on ruqyah by reciting surah al-fatihah (Bab al-Ruqa bi Fatihat al-Kitab); chapter on the conditions required for ruqyah (Bab al-shurut fi al-ruqyah bi fatihah al-kitab); chapter on ruqyah for an evil eye (Bab ruqyah al-`ayn); chapter on the effect of the evil eye is a fact (Bab al`ayn haqq); chapter on treating snakebite and scorpion sting with ruqyah (Bab ruqyah al-hayyah wa al-uqrab); chapter on the ruqyah of the Prophet (Bab al-nafth fi al-ruqyah); chapter on the blowing saliva while treating with ruqyah (Bab mash al-raqi al-waj` biyadihi al-ymna); chapter on a woman treating a man with ruqyah (Bab al-mar’ah tarqa al-rajl); chapter on not treating with ruqyah (Bab man lam yarqa). In these chapters, Imam Bukhari reported that:
During the Prophet's fatal illness, he used to recite the Mu'awwidhat (Surat An-Nas and Surat Al-Falaq) and then blow his breath over his body. When his illness was aggravated, I used to recite those two Suras and blow my breath over him and make him rub his body with his own hand for its blessings. Ma'mar asked Al-Zuhri: How did the Prophet use to blow? Al-Zuhri said: He used to blow on his hands and then passed them over his face.
Some of the companions of the Prophet passed by some people staying at a place where there was water, and one of those people had been stung by a scorpion. A man from those staying near the water, came and said to the companions of the Prophet, "Is there anyone among you who can do Ruqya as near the water there is a person who has been stung by a scorpion." So one of the Prophet's companions went to him and recited Surat-al-Fatiha for a sheep as his fees. The patient got cured and the man brought the sheep to his companions who disliked that and said, "You have taken wages for reciting Allah's Book." When they arrived at Medina, they said, ' O Allah's Apostle! (This person) has taken wages for reciting Allah's Book" On that Allah's Apostle said, "You are most entitled to take wages for doing a Ruqya with Allah's Book.”
Abu Said al-Khidri said: A group of companions of God’s Messenger went on a journey. On their way, they came by a camp of Bodouins and solicited their hospitality. The Arab Bedouins refused to welcome them, so the companions stayed nearby and took a rest. Meanwhile, the chief of the Beduins became ill of a scorpion bite. His immediate circle tried everything they knew but no avail. Finally, they went and asked the companions if they had anything to cure their chief. One of the companions replied: “Indeed, Glory be to Allah (s.w.t), I know what effective prayers to recite as cure for poisonous bite. However, we asked you to lodge us and you refused to confer such hospitality, and I will not perform such prayers unless you make us an offer.” The Arab Bedouin then cheered them and promised to reward them with a group of sheep if they succeed in curing their chief. Immediately, the companion went to the chief’s tent and sprinkled him with his spittle while reciting the Opening Chapter (surah al-fatihah). When the companions left him, the chief had regained all his strength. After the Arab Bedouins fulfilled their promise, the companions said: “Let’s divide the reward.” The one who performed the ruqya prayers replied: “Do nothing until we get back to God’s Messenger and relate our story.” Later on, when they came before him and told him what happened, the Prophet (s.a.w) commented: How did you know that al-fatihah is a ruqya? Indeed, you were right. Now, divide what you have among you and allow a share in it for men too.
In the light of these ahadith we feel much more confident to conclude that it is permissible for raqi to treat a disease with Quranic verses. As mentioned before, the Raqi should understand and know the essence of the meaning of the Quran. He is not essentially to have knowledge of all branches of Qur’an in depth. Surah al-Fatihah, for example, has been recited easily and frequently five times a day in the prayers. The Prophet (s.a.w) had expected the Muslim is able to recite and use it for medical purpose. In connection to the medical benefit of surah al-fatihah, Ibn al-Qayyim in his al-Tibb al-nabawi said: “If one’s faith, soul, and spirit are strong, and if he adapts himself to the essence of the Opening Chapter (al-fatihah), and by Allah’s leave, by reciting its holy words and blowing them on the affected person followed by his spittle upon the victim, Allah willing, such reading will incur the reaction of the evil spirits and cause the elimination of their evil act--Allah knows best.”
We are aware that the recommendation to recite Surah al-Fatihah over a patient is strange and not logical to some people especially non Muslim, however, we have to understand that the social condition in the time of Prophet (s.a.w) where disease is well understood as the logical consequence of patient’s falling to the evil spirit, needed to be treated by the spirit power of verses of the Qur’an. Now, why is exactly surah al-fatihah commonly used in prevention and treatment of disease? Some commentators were of the opinion that the central point of medical benefits in surah al-fatihah which is known as umm al-kitab, is in the power and blessings of the words: “Thee we worship (iyyaka na`budu), and Thy help we seek (iyyaka nasta`in)” These words, worship (na’budu) and help (nasta`in), are the strongest elements of the most effective cure for illness. This is an extremely noble means because, we directly ask the help from the Healer (al-Shafi) whom we rely on, trust, shelter for recovery, recognizing one’s need and dependence upon the Sole Sustainer who acknowledges one’s need. This is why surah al-fatihah is one of recommended surah to be recited for recovering from illness, weather spiritual, mental or physical. In Bab Fadl Fatihat al-Kitab of Kitab Fada`il al-Quran, Imam Bukhari reported that:
Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Mu'alla: While I was praying, the Prophet called me but I did not respond to his call. Later I said, "O Allah's Apostle! I was praying." He said, "Didn't Allah say: 'O you who believe! Give your response to Allah (by obeying Him) and to His Apostle when he calls you'?" (8.24). He then said, "Shall I not teach you the most superior Surah in the Qur'an?" He said, '(It is), 'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. ' (i.e., Surat Al-Fatiha) which consists of seven repeatedly recited Verses and the Magnificent Qur'an which was given to me."
After mentioning the above hadith, Imam Bukhari reported that:
Abu Said Al-Khudri: While we were on one of our journeys, we dismounted at a place where a slave girl came and said, "The chief of this tribe has been stung by a scorpion and our men are not present; is there anybody among you who can treat him (by reciting something)?" Then one of our men went along with her though we did not think that he knew any such treatment. But he treated the chief by reciting something, and the sick man recovered whereupon he gave him thirty sheep and gave us milk to drink (as a reward). When he returned, we asked our friend, "Did you know how to treat with the recitation of something?" He said, "No, but I treated him only with the recitation of the Mother of the Book (i.e., Al-Fatiha)." We said, "Do not say anything (about it) till we reach or ask the Prophet so when we reached Medina, we mentioned that to the Prophet (in order to know whether the sheep which we had taken were lawful to take or not). The Prophet said, "How did he come to know that it (Al-Fatiha) could be used for treatment? Distribute your reward and assign for me one share thereof as well."
After Bab Fadl Fatihah, Imam Bukhari mentioned ahadith relating the spiritual powers of Surah al-Baqarah in Bab Fadl Surah al-Baqarah which consists 286 verses. One of them is verse 256 known as Ayat al-Kursi. In this regard, Imam Bukhari reported that Allah 's Apostle said: “…when you go to your bed, recite Ayat-al-Kursi, for then there will be a guard from Allah who will protect you all night long, and Satan will not be able to come near you till dawn." This view has foundation from the meaning of Ayat al-Kursi itself as Allah (s.w.t) says:
Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) Before or After or Behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).
In spite of the fact that we have no scientific and rational explanation of the saying of the Prophet: “when you go to your bed, recite Ayat-al-Kursi, for then there will be a guard from Allah who will protect you all night long, and Satan will not be able to come near you till dawn,” however, psychologically, there can be no doubt if the reader recites the verse sincerely with full of concentration to God alone, such a prayer can be considered as a means for protection, prevention from evil. Because, when he recites the verse, he believes that Allah (s.w.t) alone is the true God who is the only One worthy for worship. He is alone lives absolutely and everlasting who is looking after all of His creation and providing them with everything they need in maintaining their respective living process. Secondly, the reader believes that He is free from tiredness and never feels sleepy and by this He alone can controls all that are in the heavens, the earth with an absolute and all-embracing authority. Thirdly, the reader believes that He is at liberty absolutely to do as He pleases. He needs nobody and nothing but everybody and everything depends on Him. Fourthly, the reader believes that He knows completely the condition of all His creation, including everything they see or that which is not seen by them. This is because He alone is the supreme Administrator and therefore, His knowledge and greatness embracing the heavens and the earth. Lastly, the reader believes that He alone posses ultimate power by which there is no difficulty and burden for Him to watch over and look after the heavens and the earth and everything that is in and on both. All these indicate that He is not like any other person or things that we know or can imagine because His qualities and nature are Unique.
There is another Surah which is commonly used by Muslims in prevention and treatment of disease namely Surah Yasin. It is possible that those who are convinced of the benefit of Surah Yasin are aware of the saying of the Prophet (s.a.w) that “On the Day of Judgment, God will not account with the person who reads Surah Yasin, but will grant him forgiveness and will make him an intercessor for many others.” Whoever has traveled to Muslim countries may see the Muslim recites certain verses of Surah Yasin for different medical purposes. For instance, it is said that if one is suffering from toothache, verse 78, wadaraba lana mathalan wanasiya khalqahu qala man yuhyi al-`izam wahiya ramim, to the end of the Surah Yasin is advised to relieve the pain by writing the mentioned verse on paper and hung over the ear on the side of the aching tooth and it will cure the pain. In addition, Muslim uses certain verse of Surah Yasin to protect his property and his household. Thirdly, Muslim is of the opinion that if one has an enemy he wishes to harm and that without injury to himself or one whose love he wishes to gain, he recites seven parts of Surah Yasin. At each mubin part, which ending with the word mubin, which means open or clear, he ties a knot in a cord he has ready at hand. When the recitation is completed he nails the cord into the ground, then, he might get his desire.
We also find that Muslims have attempted to use the Qur’an not only by recitation of its verses but also by writing it on a certain materials. These are commonly practices in the Muslim world for the purpose of prevention, treatment as well as protection one’s property, his household and his person from Jinn and evil eye. The idea was that the evil spirits, Satan of mankind and Jinn can be protected by hanging the verses of Qur’an most notably by mu`awwidhat verses. According to Ibn Hajar the mu`awwidhat verse consisted in three major surahs of the Quran namely surah al-falaq, surah al-Nas and surah al-Ikhlas. In other words, the mu`awwidhat were used primarily in the case of spiritual disease to counteract the devil (Satan) that had taken hold of an individual in a general way or, more commonly, to derive out a devil from the body. As we have known that surah al-Ikhlas has special medical benefits since surah al-Ikhlas contains the perfect affirmation of God’s Unity. The confirmation of God’s Unity its self necessarily confirms that all perfection is His, as well as, all created beings betake themselves to Him in their needs: that is, creation, from highest to the lowest, seeks Him and directs itself towards Him. Surah al-Ikhlas denies begetter and begotten and any equal. His name the Eternal (al-Samad) confirms all perfection; the denial of any equal declares none is like unto Him. Therefore, it is said that Surah al-Ikhlas equals a third of the whole Qur’an.
Bear in mind that the Muslim think differently. For the Muslim, reciting al-mu`awwidhat, as the word means, is crucial for protection from the devil i.e., Satan and Jinn. In Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (Ruqyah of theProphet) of Kitab al-Tibb, Imam al-Bukhari, in order to show the spiritual benefit of mu`awwidhat, reported that 'Aisha (r.a) said: “Whenever Allah's Apostle went to bed, he used to recite Surat-al-Ikhlas, Surat-al-Falaq and Surat-an-Nas and then blow on his palms and pass them over his face and those parts of his body that his hands could reach. And when he fell ill, he used to order me, her wife, to do like that for him.” We are aware that it is too difficult for non Muslim to accept this, but as mentioned before, al-tibb al-nabawi is rational in its own orbit and time. There is rationality of reciting mu`awwidhat before going to the bed since we are not able to control ourselves during sleep. In this case, it is reasonable to recite the muawwidhat verses seeking to a protection from everything hateful. As we agreed, seeking refuge from the evil of which He has created by reciting surah al-mu`awwidhat, carry an immense impact on safety and protection against evils before they occur.
Al-Ruqyah with Du`a (Prayer)
Imam Bukhari interrelated al-Ruqyah by reciting the verses of the Qur’an with du`a. Its concept purely spiritual, not in any way medical, but it had psychological therapy consequences. Commonly, when a man was sick, the righteous Muslim prayed over him several du`a, however, it is possible that when a man was sick he himself made offering and prayed for healing, addressing himself directly to God, asking for healing by calling his names and attributes. The followings are among the du`a which the Prophet (s.a.w) and his companions accustomed to recite, whenever he visited the sick or if a sick person was brought to him. Imam Bukhari gives the example that Anas b. Malik was complained by Thabit about some chronic pain he suffered. On that Anas said, "Shall I treat you with the Ruqya of Allah's Apostle?" Thabit said, "Yes," Anas recited:
Allahumma rabb al-nas mudhhab al-ba`s ishfi anta al-shafi la shafi illa anta shifa`an la yughadiru saqama. (O Allah! The Lord of the people, the Remover of trouble! (Please) cure (Heal) (this patient), for You are the Healer. None brings about healing but You; a healing that will leave behind no ailment).
Sometimes, while the Prophet (s.a.w) recited du`a, he was touching and putting his hands on the face, eyes and other parts of sick body and recited:
Allahumma rabb al-nas adhhab al-ba`s washfihi wa anta al-shafi la shifa`a illa shifa`ka shafi` la yughadiru saqama (O Allah, the Lord of the people! Remove the trouble and heal the patient, for You are the Healer. No healing is of any avail but Yours; healing that will leave behind no ailment).
The wife of Prophet, A`ishah (r.a.) reported that the Prophet (s.a.w) used to recited the following du`a as ruqyah:
Imsahi al-ba`s rabb al-nas, biyadika al-shifa` la kashif lahu illa anta (Remove the trouble, O the Lord of the people, the cure is in Your Hands, and there is none except You who can remove it (the disease).
Bismillah tarbatu ardana, bariqatu ba`dana, yashfi saqimuna bi`idhni rabbina (In the Name of Allah The earth of our land and the saliva of some of us cure our patient).
Bismillah tarbatu ardina, wariqatu ba`dina, yashfi saqimuna, bi’idhni rabbina (In the Name of Allah" The earth of our land and the saliva of some of us cure our patient with the permission of our Lord." with a slight shower of saliva) while treating with a Ruqya).
In another interesting occasion, Ibn Mas`ud related that the Prophet (s.a.w) was performing the prayer (salah), and while he was in sujud (prostration), a scorpion stung him on the finger and then surried away. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: “Many the curse of Allah be on the scorpion, which has not respect for the Prophets, nor any one else.” He was then treated with draughts of salt and water, and they soaked the place where he had been stung in salt and water. Then, they recited Surah al-Ikhlas and the last two surah (surah nos. 113 and 114), until the swelling went away.
It is obvious that the treatment of disease in Islamic medical system comes in several forms. It is not just physical i.e., by using drugs, but also in the form of ruqyah with the verse of the Qur’an and Du`a. The latter is spiritual, mind and emotional approach, which is suitable to be treated the disease caused by Jinn and devil, known to some people as supernatural powers. In discussion ruqyah in Islamic Medical system, it is found that the medicine of the Prophet (al-tibb al-nabawi), within its own orbit and time, is logical. The premise may seem strange, but once it is scrutinized and known, its conclusion is reached by reasoning. Al-Ruqyah, with the Qur’an and the Du`a (the Prayer) upon the patient, for instance, is rational approach since it is used after knowing the cause of disease.
This article is part of my “Health and Medicine in the Light of the Book of Medicine (Kitab al-Tibb) in Sahih Bukhari”. It was prepared while I was a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies (OCIS) from March until June 2004. I would like to express my deepest thank and recognition to the Director of OCIS, Dr. F.A Nizami for giving me the golden opportunity to conduct my research at the University of Oxford as well as for the funding that I received for my research from the Centre. Similarly, I wish to express my gratitude to the Vice Chancellor, the Dean of Faculty of Human Ecology and the Head of the Department of Government and Civilization Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, for their moral support, encouragement and understanding. The author is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Universiti Putra Malaysia. He has published in The Yale Journal for Humanities in Medicine (USA); Islamic Culture (India); Arab Law Quarterly (London); Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, and the International Medical Journal Malaysia. E-mail: email@example.com
Surah al-Isra’ (17): 82. Many verses of the Quran are known as: ’ayat al-shifa’ (for recovery from diseases), ’ayat al-husul al-sihhat (for gaining health), ’ayat al-hifz (for self protection), ayat al-istikfa (for atonement), ’ayat daf‘ al-shada’id (for warding off hardships), and ’ayat al-daf‘ al-darar wa saqm (for staving off injuries and ordeals). For this reason, when the Muslim faces certain problem, the raqi advised to write down the verse on particular on certain materials for the purpose of treatment of disease or protection.
The book of medicine (kitab al-tibb) of Sahih Bukhari (194-256/ 810-870) appears in the book 76, which consists of 58 chapters with 104 traditions. The titles of each chapter depicted the picture and the content of traditions regarding the medicine and what was related to it. This manifests Imam’s Bukhari vast knowledge of health and medicine as practiced in the time of Prophet (s.a.w) and even after. Thus, we understand that it is not merely its authenticity that makes this particular collection interested by Muslim scholars, but also the vital role it played in developing the concept of health, medicine, prevention and treatment of disease relevance to this age.
Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sahrh Sahih al-Bukhari, 13 vols. (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyyah, 1989), 10: 215.
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab al-Ruqa Bi Fatihat al-Kitab.
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Tibb al-Nabawi, ed. Shu‘aib al-Arna’ut and ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’ut. (Beirut: Mu’assasah al-Risalah, 1985), pp. 178 & 180; M. W. Dols, Majnun: the Madman in Medieval Islamic Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), 257.
Ibn al-Qayyim, Zad al-Ma‘ad fi Hady Khayr al-‘Ibad. ed. Shu‘aab al-Arna’ut and ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Arna’ut. 5 vols. Beirut: Mu’assasah al-Risalah, 4: 164.
Sahih Bukahri, Kitab Fada`il al-Quran, Bab Fadl Fatihat al-Kitab.
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Whoever has traveled in Muslim countries, where Muslim occasionally celebrated the annual festivals, has seen the group of Muslims used to recite Ayat al-Kursi in a very significant way just as they recite in spare time and some of them recite the verse without thinking and knowing its medical benefits. First they recited Ayat al-Kursi followed by the salutation to Prophet Muhammad and his household in three times. Then, it followed by the recitation of Surah al-Fitihah in ten times. After finishing them, they raised the hands to the sky praying God. All fingers should be pointed upward and the suppliant should blow his breath upon them, and then express all his needs and desires.
Surah al-Baqarah (2): 256.
Ibn Hajar, Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sahrh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 239.
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w); see also Kitab al-Tibb of Sahih Bukhari, Bab Mashu al-Raqi al-Waja` Biyadihi al-Yumna.
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ruqyah al-Nabiyy (s.a.w).
RUQYAH - A SPECIAL CURING PRAYER
Do you know that you can use specialized duaa and Qur'anic verses to cure the sick?
We are told in the Qur'an that Prophet Ibraheem, alayhis salam, said, "And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me." [26:80]
The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wasallam, said: "There is a remedy for every malady, and when the remedy is applied to the disease it cures it with the permission of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious." (Muslim) Also, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said, "Make use of the two remedies: honey and the Qur'an." (Tirmithi)
The use of spiritual forms of healing, such as payers and meditation have become quite popular. This is in part a result of a resurgence in religion and so-called "New Age" beliefs. Major medical centers and health care institutions are even studying the effects of salah on healing. For Islamic purposes, the use of specialized prayers (duaa) or Qur'anic verses are known as ruqyah. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, and his companions used this method of healing, as evidenced by many ahadeeth in Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmithi and others. Muslims are advised to provide ruqiyah for Muslims and even non-Muslims that are sick. The sick are also able to provide ruqiyah for themselves. Ruqyah is a valuable tool for treating a variety of disorders and diseases. This may include snake or scorpion bite, the evil eye (or envy), and psychological problems that Jinn may cause.
Aisha (Radhiallaahu Anha) narrated that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wasallam, used the following duaa when family members were sick, "Allahumma Rabban-nas, adh-hibil-ba's, washfi, Antash-Shafee, la shifa'a, ilia shifa'uk, shifa'an la yughadiru saqaman. (O Allah, Lord of mankind! Remove this disease and cure him. You are the Great Curer, there is no cure but through You that leaves behind no disease.)" (Bukhari and Muslim)
The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wasallam, told Amr ibnul Aas, "Place your hand where you feel pain and say 'Bismillah' three times, and then repeat seven times A'oudho bi'izzatil-lahi wa qudratihi min sharri ma ajidu wa 'uhadhir. (I seek refuge with Allah and with His Power from the evil that afflicts me and that which I apprehend.)" (Muslim)
Suratul-Fatihah, the opening surah of the Qur'an, is also recommended as a cure for sicknesses and diseases. Allah's Messenger said, "Fatihatul Kitab contains healing for every disease." (Tirmithi)
Bukhari has reported that several of the Prophet's companions used Suratul-Fatihah as a treatment for a snake or scorpion bite. They returned to the Prophet and asked the permissibility of receiving a sheep in payment for providing the ruqiyah. The Prophet then asked how they knew that Suratul-Fatihah was a ruqiyah. He added that they had done the right thing. Bukhari has also reported that Suratul Falaq and Suratun Nas (surahs 113 and 114) are also protections against illness and evil. One hadeeth has reported that the Prophet would recite mu'awwidhat (Suratul Falaq and Suratun Nas). He would then blow his breath into his hands and rub his hands over his body, hoping for its blessings. Tirmithi has reported that the Prophet used to seek protection against jinn and the evil eye until Suratul Falaq and Suratun Nas were revealed. After they were revealed, he held to them and discarded everything beside them.
There are those who believe wearing charms with certain surahs or verses on them are a protection. Others believe that placing these charms on infants will protect them from Jinn and the evil eye or believe that having decorative wall-hangings with Qur'an is a protection. Some may write these verses or surahs on a piece of paper. They then dip the paper into a glass of water and drink the water. These actions are not the prescribed actions by the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wasallam, and may come close to shirk. Allah and His Messenger have given us directions for using prayer 'whether duaa or ruqyah' and the Qur'an for healing. We must accept these directions and use them accurately while trusting in Allah's Will and Might.
Vivian bint Vondal Taylor
WHAT IS ISLAM:
Islam is the youngest and oldest monotheistic religion. Youngest; because Muhammed is the last prophet. Oldest, because all real prophets originally gave the message of Islam: "There is no god other than Allah"; and Muhammed was simply a reminder of this message, though with newer and more efficient evidences and methods. Monotheism is the most stressed feature of this religion.
The essence of this religion is summarized in this sentence; which is sufficient to make one be moslem if it is accepted by him:
THERE IS NO GOD - (other than Allah).
Thus, islamic belief is firstly a revolt, a refusal. This is seen in the above mentioned basic statement of Islam.
According to Islam, all numerous gods that are believed and that the senses make somewhat probable in the first sight must be refused; and then in the search of the uncomparable/real/one source of the existence - and after a process of reasoning, we conclude:
(There is no god) OTHER THAN ALLAH.
This continuous aspect of Islamic belief, is also seen in the practical life of the prophets and of moslems; and in their souls. Most of prophets came to communities where there was generally many gods, which were to be destroyed by them:
Below is an example from Abraham as told in the Qur'an (Ch.37v.88-96):
"Then did he cast a glance at the Stars.
Then he said: Surely I am sick (of your worshipping these).
So they turned away from him, and departed.
Then did he turn to their gods and said, "will ye not eat (of the offerings before you)?... What aileth you that ye speak not?
Then did he turn upon them, striking (them) with the right hand. And (his people) came toward him, hastening.
He said: "Worship ye that which ye have (yourselves) carved?
And Allah has created you and what you make."
Yes, as real prophets crashed the idols; the discrete idols of our age are to be crashed and refused. (Well, discreteness is not an important difference between contemporary and anscient idols, because most of the idolators suggest/ed that they were in fact believing in the spirits that exist within the idols.)
Human products do not make this universe and the events exist.
Statements/accepted facts as:
E=(1/2)m*v2 or E=m*c2 are not what causes physical events; nor any relation that will be discovered later.
mass= f(velocity, energy);
velocity= f(energy, mass)= f (time, space)
location (a)= f (location[b]); location(b)= f (location[a])
the length of x is y meters; x meters is the length of y
are NOT the source of any thing. (f represents different functions for each statement)
Rather, as these relations are real while they are tautologies - determining each other by a vicious circle; they must not be causes, especially not the causes of reality; but results of one reality of higher (better adjective: undeterminable/uncomparable; because if determined, or compared, there remains no difference between the idols we reject and One God we accept) order.
Why it is said "One" reality? Because they (the man christened-created relations or better: Names of relations) are the unifying things (or proof of the unity of real things) while there is no reason for such a unity; and they do not constitute such a reason, for they are only RESULTS (TEMPORARY ONES); they are not real-executive entities/things.
Today, every fact X, is known in Ys; and every fact Y is defined in Xs. Every fact (for example matter) is formed of constituents; constituents that have no limit in infinitesimally small levels. For example, today, can we see any nuclear physicists who suggest certainly that there is not a sub level of the smallest particle we know today? Can anybody say; an explanation of gravity based on spacetime curvature and/or gravitons is complete and ultimate? No, because every entity is constituted of two halves, or three 1/3s, or four 1/4s, ... And this infinitesimality makes any ultimately exact and full knowledge even theoretically impossible. As this is so, no known thing can be eternal, because of this multiple and comparable aspect.
SCIENCE WITHOUT ISLAMIC TOOLS, IS DEADLY LAME; AND CEASES TO BE REALLY SCIENCE
However, one should not conclude from above written statements, that Islam is against science or that there is a trade-off between science and Islam. It is clear that the reality is otherwise. Islam supports the science; but a full and continuous science, which does not include conjectures, a science which does not stop to take responsibility for explaining some facts after a point, a science able to explain itself too. Islam being the Ultra-Science, gives us tools to understand everything including science; and bestows upon science the place it deserves; while in the present mentality, science is something that makes us understand physical, chemical, biological, ... events; but does not provide us with any tool to understand itself. When the latter is the situation, how can one say that science is able to explain us anything, even the simplest thing convincingly?
ACCORDING TO ISLAM, TODAY, SCIENCE IS ALSO AN ALTERNATIVE RELIGION AMONG OTHERS (IN GENERAL).
COMPARISON OF ISLAM AND SCIENCE AS RELIGIONS:
1.The basic statement of Islam is: "There is no god other than Allah" (Qur'an:Ch.37 v.35).
2. Everything is created, that is to say given its qualifications, and directed according to these qualifications by Allah and while He wants.
"And Who makes (things) according to a measure, then directs" (ch87/v3)
"He said who is your Lord, Moses? He answered, Our Lord is He who giveth all things their qualifications and directed them." (ch20/v.49,50)
"Unto Him do all creatures in heaven and earth make petition; every day is He in work." (ch.55/ v.29)
"Then let man look to his food: How We pour water in showers. Then split the earth in clefts. And cause the grain to grow therein. And grapes and green fodder. And the olive and the palm..."(ch.80/ v.25-29)
"Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah is He on Whom all depend. He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him." (ch.112)
"They said, burn him, and avenge your gods: If ye do this it will be well. We said O fire, be thou cold, and a preservation unto Abraham. And they sought to lay a plot against him: but we caused them to be the sufferers." (ch.21/v.68-70)
3. So, according to Qur'an, nothing can be explained fully when Allah is not taken into account. In other words everything needs Allah for existing. If you say that anything does not need Allah, or that you can explain something ONLY by a factor which is not Allah, you will have assigned this factor to some extent a property of Allah, which in fact it has not. And anything which does not need Allah, is assigned a status similar to Allah, a divine status.
Mankind have often made the assignment I mentioned above. To gods such as god of sun, god of water, god of love and so on.These were thought as having partial authority on some parts of the world.
Today the same is true for some mathematical, geometrical, physical concepts and relations. A simple atheist is probably to say:Everything is explained or will be explained by sciences; so there is no need for a god. The first part of this argument is good and strong and Qur'an also favours this kind of reasoning. But there is a difference as to the second part: According to Qur'an, science (-or causal thinking) needs Allah in order to explain the existence. Again, as you need Allah to explain the existence, if He is not taken into account; then there must be godlike things that are assigned the post.
Many of our atheist friends suggest that we create our gods in our minds. But is it not interesting that some prophets say also the same to their people concerning their gods, according to the Qur'an: "Hud answered, now shall there suddenly fall upon you from your Lord vengeance and indignation. Will ye dispute with me concerning the names which ye have named, and your fathers; as to which God hath not revealed unto you any authority?" (ch. 7/ v. 70) and that the atheists also may have given some things (as matter and its parts) the posts of god?
So, the critical question is: "Whether Allah excludes godlike properties ( as unity, coordination, execution, knowledge, predictability, absoluteness, creation of new entities and so on) of: Scientific entities (as matter and energy), the media where these exist (dimensions), their states (as order, chaos), relations between all these (as of matter relating to space or energy; relevant formulaes and so on) or whether these latter things leave no place for the existence of an active god.
These really constitute good subjects for debate, especially if you consider verses as "And (He is) Who makes (things) according to a measure, then guides (them to their goal)" (ch87/v3) "He said who is your Lord, Moses? He answered, Our Lord is he who giveth all things their properties, and directed them." (ch20/v.49,50)
The difference between the two approaches may be resumed so:
The muslim says:"The creatures (includes everything) are given by God, their qualifications (including the physical laws, equations, formulaes [we may be unknowing everything, the real is known by Allah]) and they are executed and may be changed by Allah when(r)ever He wants.".
The (atheist)scientist says "The properties (including above mentioned laws and so on) of everything are intrinsic to them and absolute and not subject to change except for any specific conditions"
And therefore, there is no trade-off between Islam and Real-Science, both support each other. Let us discuss this issue in the next part in more detail.
OUR SCIENCE SUBMITS TO ISLAM AND ALLAH -THE ONE.(SOME MENTAL EXPERIMENTS)
In general, those who try to philosophize, begin by philosophizing tons of materials while they have/could not philosophize(d) a single point; and they are overcome, the natural result of this, being basic mistakes; because of the small quantity of energy per material, due to the lack of concentration.
Therefore, let us use a different method here for understanding things without being indoctrinated; and questioning everything:
Let us create in our mind a universe consisting of three simple objects: M, L, A. The nature of these objects does not matter. I did, did you? If yes, let us go on:
What are there in this universe? There is: M, there is:L, there is:A; what else? There is: MA, there is: ML, there is: LA and the combinations summed up, there is MLA. What else? There is the frame where MLA, or M, L, A or the combinations exist. Is there anything else? Time? Yes, however, we may consider our universe as a three dimensioned one, and add time later.
Now let us begin by an individual consideration: As M, L, A are comparable, let us take one of them (M) and consider it: In this universe, what are its properties?
Article 1. INFINITESIMALITY: The object is a positive thing: A sum of parts, that we may divide (to some extent really and) theoretically infinitesimally.
Article 2. LIMITATION: It is a limited thing. It ends somewhere in the frame wherein it exists; at least where L, or A begins.Whether your frame is two or ten dimensional it is so. You may argue perhaps: I imagined it in order to extend towards infinities; if so, you must add another dimension, in order to make L and A easily existable, and limit M according to this dimension.
Article 3. THE UNITY BETWEEN FRAME AND OBJECT: As this is an essentially limited thing, it needs the frame and can not be understood without the frame. So, anything can not be thought without a frame. The frame is the part of the object. They are not apart. Therefore, it is wrong in fact to consider them as different things. Here we see unity and apartness that coexist.
Article 4. THE RELATIVITY BETWEEN FRAME AND OBJECT: It can not be defined by the frame except by the line that separates it from the frame, because, otherwise there would be a tautology; for the frame is defined by the object itself.
Up to now, I dealed with the unity relating to M; internal unity: That exists between the parts of M; The unity between M and the frame: That they are not separable and none can be understood/is meaningfull without other. The existence of frame without object is impossible, as the existence of the object without the frame.
Article 5.THE EXTERNAL UNITY(The unity between M, L and A): As we have seen above, M and its frame is one. The same is true for L and A. Now, we ask: OK, M, L and A exist separately, what about MLA then? Let us consider only geometrical relation between them (one could suggest that there could be exactly no relation between them. Even if there is no geometrical relation, there would be a relation, a common point: The special existence).
Where does the relation between M, L and A exist then? In M? In L? Or in A? Your answer is probably: No, it exists only in my mind. Well, what about real things then? Which do not exist in your mind and in none's mind? Where does the totality of numerous things exist? In space? What is space? Only a part of each one of the objects; and nearly a theoretical one. It has by no means the ability of being the source of such a unity. In other words, every object has its own frame, so each frame is itself different from other frames, therefore the objects of question must be conceived as including each its own frame.
Article 6. THE INTERNAL UNITY:In the article 5, we have taken M, L, A as different parts; there we saw the external unity. If you consider article 1, where we state that each object is in fact constituted of parts, which may be named and considered exactly as Mx, Lx and Ax; you will see that the external unity mentioned above is also true internally, for the same reasons.
Article 7. COMPARABILITY: At least some properties of the imaginative objects are comparable; as length, height, color, mass, ... This requires/is the result of similarity and difference(if they are identical in many properties, at least their identities are different)
-7.1 SIMILARITY: This property gains big importance when the 1st article is taken into account. Because, the infinite numbers of the parts make the probability of a random constitution of two (or three) similar (even not totally) things: P= x/infinite= 0. And therefore, we look for something that may serve as a common source between things that are comparable (including in the things are also frames).
One could say: In the big bang, everything was one, so the similarity comes from there. However, if we consider the relativity of the 8th article, the infinitesimality of the 1st article, the difference mentioned in the 7.2nd article, the dimension +1 of the 9th article; that the dimensions appeared at one time! becomes absurd; they are already relative, and dependent on the body, whatever it is.
-7.2 DIFFERENCE:(REALITY:) From the above judgments one may conclude that where nothing exists there will be no need for such a common source; so everything may be an illusion; well this is not the case, neither our imaginations, nor the real universe are illusions. Here the difference of things come on scene: We can test anything; if you want in a laboratory, or in the daily events. Everything has a quantity, everything has an identity, difference, marginality. Because/Therefore everything is REAL.
Article 8.RELATIVITY: How big is M that you created? Answer: It is bigger than L, or as big as A or something like this. How big is L? Smaller than M? Well, these answers are in fact no answers. Just tautologies. Do you argue against this? "Yes." You say perhaps, "Why anything should have an intrinsic value, relative values are quite sufficient; value is in fact something relative." OK. I would like that you concentrate your attention on the equation below:
lM (length of M)= 2*lA(lenth of A)
Here, is there something that saves us from tautology?
Yes. There is: It is the ratio: 2.
Now another question: Where is this "2"? Is it inside M or inside A or inside M and A, or outside all these? I do not know your answer; but mine is none of them. Because I do not want to fall in the same tautology by giving an answer that is comparable to M or A or their in/outside.
Article 9.DIMENSION "+1": In the latter article, you see also that for your M, L and A, that when two or more things are real, there is a need for a unifying continuous platform. This is true also for dimensions.
The fact that we can not even logically disprove the probable multiplicity of the frame where our spacetime exists and that another dimension "+1" besides our universe's does not exist, is a solid proof of the unabsoluteness of things. Therefore, we can not base any scientific explanation ultimately upon spacetime, nor upon anything measured according to any physical object. They are not absolute, they have no superiority or more central meaning. By contrast, the fact that everything is according to a measure, requires an ABSOLUTE.
Think of a two two dimensional planes: If they are real, there must be an at least three dimensional frame. Think of two three dimensional planes; if they are real, then there must be a four dimensional frame. If there are two four dimensional frames, then there must be a five dimensional frame. This is the result of comparability of different dimensioned bodies. So, if some things are comparable, we can not know at which step of the pyramide we are located, but we can know that there is an upper step. And we can conclude that there is an absolute single existence atop the pyramide; atop ALL. In this sense, this ALL is equal.
Dimension "+1" is the dimension wherefrom you have chosen the special shape of your universe (better I should say, of the simplest part of your universe.)
The "2" (it is merely a number, it is the real/special relation between LX and LY) , we mentioned above, is a special value; and I call the dimension where it exists, Dimension "+1". Wherefrom comes +1? It comes from the fact that, how many be the number of any real n dimensions set, this is a very special set, stemming from a larger frame; of n+1 dimensions.
EXAMPLE 1: Let the distance between M and A, be 3*lM. If our universe is three dimensional one (without time), then we will be unable to imagine this distance to be 2*lM for instance. But when we accept the dimension +1 frame, it becomes possible; because we have now taken into account the fact that 3, is a special value for that relation; and we changed our geometrical frame according to this fact.
EXAMPLE 2: If we conceive the universe we live in, as a four dimension -with the time- set, then there is a need for an at least 5 dimension frame; so that four dimensional units may be comparable without tautology. You can argue the dimension +1 concept to be only a mathematical one (in terms of probability); however, the relativity and the unabsoluteness of things, which we can not escape, constitute a sufficient and solid proof in favor of the reality of the "dimension +1".
EXAMPLE 3: The fall or motion of any body is related to other bodies movements: For instance a watch, or the movement of the earth or the moon: The pen, that falls from a given height, reaches earth (all conditions being same) in a given time, that is, while the earth rotates a determined angle, or the second hand moves to another determined position. The relation and its constituents that exist in the dimension +1, may be anything, and therefore, the relation we do see is a special one.
In the present conditions of our universe where time exists, your (timeless) LMA, becomes LMA(tx..tz); with all of its parts. As LMA (tx) is a special form of its dimension "+1", in the same way, the whole of LMA(tx..ty) is a special form of its dimension "+1"; as if LMA(tx) stands for M, LMA(ty) stands for L, and LMA(tz) stands for A. Because, the continuousness or the changing values of them according to this dimension, and the resulting set LMA(tx..tz) is a special one. (The relation you chose for Ltx and Lty, is a special one between its dimension "+1").
Where begins the dimension +1? It begins where real relations end; and makes these relations special/exceptional:
Think one of the current laws used as a relation for determining X(t1) and X(t2): the conservation of energy. Thanks to this law!, we can calculate the X(t2) (it may be speed, coordinates, acceleration, ...) if we know X(t1).
This law could be different; dE(total)/dt could be negative or positive, instead of being 0. As if I am hearing your protests: What Could Diminish The Speed of a Smoothly Moving Body??? A counter question: What can increase the space it traverses?
Do you ask: Did not you yourself say that space is a tautological concept? Yes, it is so according to your belief system, for me it has a sound base. But if you go a step further, you will see that my question holds reasonable, because, your or mine belief system effect both sides: Both the body and the space. Therefore, it is obvious that the conservation of energy is a special one, out of its relevant dimension +1.
Thus, all relations that serve as bridges between tx and ty; are special and relative ones, and it can not be said that they constitute any base for the difference of tx and ty; as the situations tx and ty can not be responsible for the relations.
Article 10.DYNAMIC UNITY:
"And we have sent down from the rainy clouds abundant water,
THEREBY to produce GRAIN and PLANT,
And GARDENS dense and luxuriant.
Most people argue that no physical event has a purpose. Namely, the formation of the solar system; or the creation of species; or the industrial developments were neither foreseen nor programmed. Physical events occurring billions of years ago were not shaped as to produce us or any future thing. First a physical event occurs; then relevant results appear.
In other words, LMA(t2) is not shaped according to LMA(t3); but, is shaped according to LMA(t1); there is no relation between them except the physical causal one. The conditions prevailing respectively at t1 and t2 are the sole determinants of the situations at t2(=>t3) and t3.
However, a very simple fact shows that before these relations, there is a purposeful relation between [all these] [and] [a set of purposes]: This fact is that LMA(tx) we consider, which is defined by a time point, is an illusion and we can not have it in reality; but we can only have LMA(tx-ty). Namely, we can not take LMA and (tx-ty) as distinct things: Whatever small be the difference between tx and ty; there will be a tx and a ty that determine LMA altogether. Therefore, the real situation where y is not the result of x exists and such situations dominate and constitute our universe. Whatever is the case, LMA has a vector in relation with time (however is time's definition); and this means in the same time that whatever is the situation, LMA is determined by at least two time coordinates.
We may now conclude there is at the microscopic/theoretical level a situation where LMA(tx) is not the essential cause of situation LMA(ty); where LMA(ty) is not secondary as compared with LMA(tx). Both of them are the result of a purposeful process/existance under which they are united.
You may argue: Even if they are united, LMA(tx) is the cause of a LMA(ty'). Answer:This approach is useful only for practical purposes; and nobody can reach a REAL LMA which is defined solely by a time point (without an interval); without a time vector; without at least two (two here is used only for making the issue more understandable) different "Moments".
Now we must consider some other relevant facts which show that ALL is purposeful:
a. The relativeness of the size of time intervals
b. The relations LMA(tx-ty) and LMA(ty-tz) are identical and linked in this perspective.
Arguments in this article show clearly that an absolute superiority or inferiority assigned to causally first or second events have no sound base. And in this perspective, the absurdity of explaining all events only with the same level causes is obvious.
"And all things We have kept in a clear Register."
LET ME MAKE SOME CONCLUSIONS FROM THE ABOVE QUALIFICATIONS THAT HOLD TRUE FOR OUR UNIVERSE:
1. The existence of infinite similar things shows clearly a common source; and this common source can not be comparable to these things; otherwise, this thing also would be subject to such a common source. When the first article considered, the similarity is better understood; for, it is a similarity which comes up from infinitesimally law levels.
2.This similarity is not an illusion, because things are real, and are different in a control, and can be tested in or outside laboratories.
3.Things; and the frames wherein they exist are one and defined in the terms of each other. So, these frames are not the unifying things that can serve the ongoing relations, and reciprocal determination. Adding the first article, we may conclude that, everything in the formation step; and after it, is the result of this basic unity. Everything having a multiplicity, that is formed by the unities of the constituents, which constitute always a unity. For we can test whatever we see by each other.
4. What unifies/defines the things is not themselves, or what they are compared with, because, then there would be a tautology.
5. The identity of a set of numerous things is different from its constituents. And it exists. But not in the constituents. Nor in the frame where they exist: As told before, all parts have their own frames and can not be conceived without them; also, the frames must be unified somehow; they need at least an upper frame wherein they can exist and be related to this frame. Where do these things exist?
6. The overwhelming probability that covers everything and the issuing specialty of everything, in the dimensions +1 concept, shows another work of the unity and prettiness of things that are formed and sustained by this unity and that are gathered together being brought from irrelevant probable positions.
7. This unity exists, works, is not the existence or any part of it, is not comparable with the existence.