"O Allah! We seek goodness from Your Knowledge and with Your Power (and Might) We seek strength, and We ask from You Your Great Blessings, because You have the Power and We do not have the power. You Know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action (We are about to take) is better for my religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then make it destined for us and make it easy for us and then add blessings [baraka'] in it, for us. O Allah! In Your Knowledge if this action is bad for us, bad for our religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then turn it away from us and turn us away from it and whatever is better for us, ordain [destine] that for us and then make us satisfied with it."
The Webmaster (Pok Nik) would like to express his highest gratitude and thanks to (Almarhum) Ustaz Haji Ahmad Junaidin bin Che Din for his permission and greatest support in order to make this Global Abjad Blog as a reality.
Contact Pok Nik at : firstname.lastname@example.org
Importance of a good shaykh by Shaykh Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi Allahu anhu
Al Ghawth al-Adham Shaykh Sayyad Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi 'Allahu anhu said: You must work hard to ensure that your hearts are not locked out of the door of His nearness. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must seek the company of a Shaykh who is learned in the law [hukm] and knowledge ['ilm] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), and who will show you the way toward Him. Without seeing the successful [muflih], one cannot succeed. If a person does not seek the company of scholars who put their knowledge into practice ['ulama 'ummal], he is a chicken from an egg abandoned by the rooster and the mother hen.
Seek the fellowship of those who enjoy fellowship with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). What each of you should do, when the night has grown dark and people have gone to bed and their voices are silent, is get up, take an ablution [yatawadda'], perform two cycles of ritual prayer [yusalli rak'atain] and say: "O my Lord, guide me to one of Your righteous servants near to You, so that he may guide me toward You and make me familiar with Your path." The instrument [sabab] is necessary. Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) was quite capable of guiding [His servants] to Him without the Prophets [anbiya']. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must awaken from your heedless folly. As the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: If someone relies entirely on his own subjective judgement, he will go astray. Try to find someone who will be a mirror for the face of your religion [din], just as you look in the mirror to check the appearance of your outer face, your turban and your hair. Be sensible! What is this crazy foolishness? You say, "I don't need anyone to teach me," and yet the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: The believer is the believer's mirror [al-mu'minu mir'atu 'l-mu'min].
When the believer's faith is sound, he comes to be a mirror for all creatures. They behold their religious faces [wujuh adyanihim] reflected in the mirror of his speech, every time they see him and get close to him. What is this craziness? Not a moment goes by without your begging Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) to provide you with more than you already have to eat, to drink, and to wear, with more sexual opportunities and more income. These are not things that could increase or decrease, even if you were to be joined in your plea by every supplicant whose prayers are answered [da 'in mujab].
Supplication [da 'wa] will neither increase one's sustenance by so much as an atom, nor reduce it by an atom. This is a foregone conclusion [mafrugh minhu]. You must devote your attention to doing what you have been commanded to do, and to avoiding what you have been forbidden to do. You should not worry about that which is bound to come your way, because He guarantees that it will come to you. Allotted shares [aqsam] arrive at their appointed times, whether they be sweet or bitter, whether you like them or dislike them.
The people [of the Way] attain to a condition in which they no longer have any prayer of supplication [du'a] or request [su'al] to make. They do not beg [in their prayers] to gain advantages, nor to get rid of disadvantages. Their supplication comes to be a matter concerning their hearts, sometimes for their own sake and sometimes for the sake of all creatures, so they utter the prayer of supplication without conscious premeditation [fi ghaiba].
"O '' Allah, endow us with good behaviour in Your company under all circumstances!
[When the believer's faith is sound], fasting [sawm], prayer [salat], remembrance [dhikr] and all acts of obedience [ta 'at] become second nature to him, mingled with his flesh and blood. Then he receives protection from Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) under all circumstances. The restraint of the law [hukm] does not desert him, not for an instant, while he is on this course. The law comes to be like the vessel in which he sits, as he travels over the ocean of the power [qudra] of his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He). He goes on traveling over it until he arrives at the shore of the hereafter, at the shore of the ocean of grace and the hand of nearness. Thus he is sometimes in the company of creatures and at certain times in the company of the Creator. His work and toil are with creatures, while his relaxation is with the Creator.
From Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, "The Sublime Revelation (Al-Fath ar-Rabbani)," translated by Muhtar Holland (Al-Baz Publishing, Houston, 1992), p. 426-8.
Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him. (It was related by al-Bukhari)
“Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”
Saturday, June 28, 2008
27 June 2008
Silat Melayu Wallpaper
The above wallpaper was designed by a regular reader of Silat Melayu: The Blog, Mohd Fairuzuddin Faizan b. Mohd Yusoff the President of the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak chapter of Pertubuhan Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia.
The wallpaper depicts a Silat Seni Gayong grappling technique and includes a pantun from Poknik, also a regular visitor here. His pantun has appeared in this blog here. We thank Fairuzuddin for sharing this cool piece of work with us and hope to hear more from him. Thanks!
(click on the picture above to download the full-sized wallpaper).
Posted by Mohd Nadzrin Wahab at 3:19 PM
Monday, June 23, 2008
By Adil Salahi
1. Arrangement of the Quran
Q.1. Could you explain the basis of the arrangement of the Qur'anic Surahs. We know that the Surah entitled Al-Alaq was the first to be revealed, but it is placed as Surah No. 96 in the final arrangement. May I ask on what basis was the Qur'an arranged and by whom.
Q.2. It is said that Sarah, the wife of Prophet Abraham, was unhappy when his other wife had given birth to his first son, Ishmael. She asked him to banish her and that was the cause for Abraham taking both wife and child to the barren valley of Makkah where he left them. Was Sarah actually so jealous?
Q.3. Since the Shias praise Ali all the time, rather than God and His messenger, and since they do not say the azan as we do, can we consider them Muslims?
The Prophet received revelation of the Qur’anic Surahs as and when God chose to bestow on him new revelation. At times several Surahs, particularly the longer ones, were being revealed to him concurrently. The Prophet was instructed by Angel Gabriel who brought him the revelation where to place every new passage.Similarly the arrangement of the Surahs in a specific order was given by the Prophet, who indicated it mostly by reading the Surahs, particularly in prayer, in a specific order. There are some reports about the arrangement of the Surah being done without any specific authority given by the Prophet, but there is no basis for this assumption. The fact is that when Caliph Abu Bakr instructed Zaid ibn Thabit to collect the original writings of the Qur’anic revelations, Zaid produced a whole copy of the Qur’an. It was arranged in the order we have today. This was done in the first two years after the Prophet’s death, since Abu Bakr ruled for less than two years.
Later at Caliph Uthman’s time, copies were produced and sent to various centers of the Muslim state to be the reference copy in each center. These, also produced by Zaid ibn Thabit, were based on the first collection. There was no disagreement among the Prophet’s companions with regard to the ordering of the Surahs. This shows that an arrangement was made by the Prophet himself as he taught the Qur’an to his companions.
The question remains why the arrangement did not follow the chronological order of revelation. The answer is that the Qur’an was revealed over a period of 23 years, with passages and Surahs revealed in connection with certain events. This was highly beneficial as the Qur’an addressed cases when they actually took place. But when its revelation was over, its arrangement should take into consideration the needs of later generations of Muslims. The arrangement reflects what God wishes His book to be like. Hence, He gave His instructions to His messenger to indicate its arrangement, with both Surahs and verses placed at their appropriate positions.
The report about Sarah, Abraham’s wife, is correct to the best of our knowledge. Sarah was susceptible to all the feelings and emotions of ordinary women. Hence, it is not surprising that she should feel jealous when her husband was given a child by his second wife, while she, an old woman, had no children. As Abraham showed great care and tenderness toward both mother and baby, Sarah must have felt that she was reduced to a secondary position. Hence her demand that both be taken away. It was God who commanded Abraham to take his wife and child to the valley of Makkah and leave them there. That was for a definite purpose of His, and He does what He wishes.
Answer 3 :
It is true that the Shias accord great respect to Ali, placing him above other companions of the Prophet in their esteem. But neither this, nor the additions they have in the azan or call to prayer, is reason to consider them non-believers. How can anyone say so when they declare that they believe in the oneness of God and the message of His messenger, Muhammad (peace be on him).
2. God's Name and Tawaf
Considering that the Prophet's father's name was Abdullah, may I ask if God's name, Allah, was known before Islam?
3. Why is the tawaf movement anti-clock wise?
Ans 1. Yes, God’s name, Allah, was known for a long time in Arabia. We find it in Arabic poetry dating back many centuries prior to the advent of Islam. It is perhaps the name used by Prophets Abraham and Ishmael. To the Arabs who lived shortly before Islam, it signified the overall God who controlled the universe. However, they thought their idols to be His partners who would listen to their appeals and bring them closer to God.
Ans 2. In matters of worship, we accept what Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has taught us without question. There need not be an apparent reason for the form of any particular worship. Otherwise we would be questioning every thing and suggesting alternatives. People would ask: why do we do one rukoo’ and two prostrations, or sujood in prayer? Why do some prayers include two rakaahs while others have four? We should remember that whatever God does or orders must have a purpose. We accept that God’s purpose is always wise and beneficial. Hence, we do our worship as the Prophet has taught us. When he started his pilgrimage, he announced to the large number of his companions travelling with him: “Learn from me your rituals.” It is a clear order that the pilgrimage and the Umrah should be done exactly in the manner he did or approved. When he did his tawaf he walked round the Kaaba in an anti-clock wise movement. This is why we do the same.
4. Ablution for Tawaf
Q. You have stated that ablution is obligatory for doing the tawaf around the Kaaba. I have recently come across a ruling issued by the Deobandi school in India, stating that ablution is highly recommended for tawaf, but not obligatory. Please clarify.
Ans. The overwhelming majority of scholars consider ablution, or wudhu, an essential condition for tawaf, not merely obligatory. When we speak of a condition we mean that the action itself will not be valid if the condition is not met. There are several Hadiths supporting this. In one of them, Ibn Abbas quotes the Prophet as saying: “Tawaf is a prayer. However, God has allowed speaking during tawaf. Whoever speaks while doing it should only say something good.” (Related by Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Hakim, Ibn Khuzaimah, Al-Daraqutni and others). Another highly authentic Hadith quotes Aishah as saying: “The first thing the Prophet did on arriving in Makkah was to do the ablution and perform tawaf.” (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
If a person doing the tawaf experiences doubt as to whether he has performed the ablution before he started, his tawaf is not valid. He must leave and perform the ablution and come back for his tawaf. If he has done the tawaf of the Umrah and then realized, after completing it, that he had not done the ablution first, he remains in ihraam until he has done a new tawaf after doing the ablution.
However, the Hanafi school of Fiqh does not consider the ablution a condition for the validity of tawaf, but makes it a duty. This means that if a person doing the Umrah or the pilgrimage performs the tawaf without having done the ablution, his tawaf is valid but he must compensate for omitting the duty of purification by slaughtering a sheep and giving the sacrifice to the poor in the Haram area. If a pilgrim does the tawaf when he is in the state of ceremonial impurity, i.e. janabah, or when a woman is in her period, the tawaf is valid but the compensation is a sacrifice of a cow or a camel, and they must repeat the tawaf while they are in Makkah.
As you see, the matter is serious indeed. I cannot find a basis for the ruling by the Deobandi school, which I certainly respect.
5. Tasbeeh and Dhuha Prayers
Q. Could you please explain the importance and details of Tasbeeh and Dhuha prayers.
A. Dhuha prayer is a voluntary prayer which may be offered at any time starting about half an hour after sunrise until shortly before noon. It is 2-8 rakaahs which are normally short. It may be offered any day, on regular or sporadic basis. Recitation in this prayer is normally private. It is certainly encouraged for anyone who can offer it, because it comes at a time when people are normally busy with their business. If one can take a short break to offer a couple of rakaahs, it does him well. If circumstances do not allow, then one may do it on weekends. Tassabeeh prayer is a night prayer, offered sometime before dawn. It is 2 rakaahs with long glorification of God in certain parts of each rakaah. There is only one Hadith which mentions this type of prayer, and it is not really authentic. In fact, Imam Ahmad, the founder of the Hanbali school of thought, who was one of the top scholars of Hadith and Fiqh, finds no basis for this prayer and does not encourage it. Still, if one wants to offer it, no blame attaches to him.
6. The Legal Profession
Q. I want to be a lawyer, but I have been told that there is much lying in this profession which makes it unlawful for a Muslim to take up. Please comment.
A. This is a very naïve view. It is true that some lawyers may resort to devious methods in order to get their clients out of some messy situations, but this is the choice of those lawyers. It is not something imposed on them by their profession. A lawyer may decide not to take up a case if he is convinced that the client is guilty. Or he may take it up, using his professional skill and expertise to get the court to understand the true case, with all its extenuating circumstances, so that he gets a fair trial and a favorable sentence for his client.
There is certainly nothing wrong with being a lawyer, provided that you do not compromise on your Islamic values and principles.
There are some prominent lawyers who are very good Muslims. It is the approach of the person to his profession and his religion that determines whether he abides by Islamic teachings or not.
This applies to all professions, not merely the legal profession.
7. A Second Pilgrimage
Q. My husband and I went on pilgrimage 10 years ago, taking with us our very young daughter. At the time, I knew very little about religion, and I had to take care of the child while performing the duties of pilgrimage. I feel I want to do the pilgrimage again, particularly since I have learned much about Islam. My husband, however, refused to let me go with my sister and her husband, saying that the pilgrimage is a duty once in a lifetime. Yet we are spending much on holidays, food, clothes, etc. We have had several difficulties lately: could this be a punishment from God for my husband's refusal to let me do the pilgrimage? My husband gives me an allowance for my own expenses. If I save some of this and use it for pilgrimage, is that acceptable?
A. The first point to clarify is that your difficulties are not a punishment from God for your husband’s attitude. God may punish people in this life for their sins, and your husband’s refusal to go on pilgrimage or to support your pilgrimage is no sin, because it is a voluntary pilgrimage, or Sunnah. The duty of pilgrimage is once in a lifetime, and both of you have done that. So, where is the sin in not going again? Everyone may have difficulties, because our life on earth is a test which we have to pass. This test may involve difficulties and hardship or affluence and blessings.
What you need to do is to make your husband understand that pilgrimage could be offered as voluntary, or Sunnah, in the same way as the Sunnah prayers which we may offer every day. It is a method to get our past sins wiped out. Everyone needs that, regardless of how good they are. Your husband appears through your letter to be a good person, devoted to his family and kind to his relatives. He may earn great reward from God for that, but doing the pilgrimage every few years is also a great act of submission to God, for which you stand to earn great reward.
If you save from your allowance and pay for the expenses of your and his pilgrimage, this will be a great act for which he may be indebted to you.
8. Government Restrictions on Business
Q. If a government restricts the licensing of certain types of business, does violating the restrictions constitute an illegal action from the Islamic point of view? For example, if a government says that only certain organizations can establish telecommunications business, and then a person establishes his own, paying the fine imposed by the government, does he commit something forbidden in Islam? Can we see here a parallel in a government outlawing marriage with more than one wife? If one lives in a country where polygamy is outlawed, and he nevertheless marries a second wife, his marriage is valid from the Islamic point of view, even though the government of his country may consider it illegal. Please comment.
A. It is open to a Muslim ruler to restrict some permissible actions, provided that such restriction is lawful under Islamic law and undertaken in the interests of the community. To give a simple example, a government may impose speed limits that vary on the basis of the nature of the road. To start with, driving at any speed is permissible. When the government imposes speed limits and punishes those who violate such restrictions, for the sake of public safety, its action is perfectly lawful from the Islamic point of view and it must be obeyed. Hence, when a driver exceeds such speed limits, he does not only violate the law of the land, but also commits something forbidden in Islam.
This means that the nature and purpose of the restriction are vital in determining whether it must not be violated from the Islamic point of view. If a government restricts telecommunications to a public authority because it knows that such business generates good income which is then used to provide services to the public, then such restriction is perfectly legitimate and it must be obeyed. On the other hand, if the restriction is such as to give certain people monopoly because they are related to the president or to some minister, then the restriction violates Islamic law. Those who impose this monopoly, depriving people of the chance of earning their livelihood will have to account to God for their injustice.
What should be our attitude in such a situation? The general rule is that stated by the Prophet: “A Muslim must obey and comply, in matters he likes or dislikes, unless he is commanded to do what constitutes disobedience to God.” This applies when one lives under a Muslim government, or indeed under any government, because a Muslim does not unnecessarily defy orders. But when a government order requires him to disobey God, he does not comply.
This must not be confused with cases like the reader has cited, i.e. outlawing something lawful, or legalizing something forbidden. When a government does that, it exercises an authority which belongs to God alone, namely the authority to prohibit anything. When God has made marriage with up to four wives permissible, it is not for any ruler or government to say that it is not.
9. Zakah for Non-Muslims
Q1. By the grace of God, my parents converted to Islam and I was born in a Muslim family in a country where the majority are non-Muslims. Many of our relatives are non-Muslims, but they maintain good relations with us. Is it permissible to give them a portion of our zakah after distributing the larger share to poor Muslims?
Q2. We have a relative who is looking after her own children. Although she has a small house and jewellery, she has no regular income, and she is poor. Can she be helped with zakah money?
A1. The general rule is that when there are needy Muslims who qualify as beneficiaries of zakah, it may not be paid to non-Muslims. But that does not mean that a Muslim state should not look after the poor among its non-Muslim citizens. They should be helped, but from sources other than zakah. Zakah is a religious duty, and an act of worship. Hence, it should be used for the benefit of the Muslim community. When we reach a stage where the Muslim community is well looked after that there remain no one in need of zakah money, zakah may be paid to the poor who follow other religions.
Having said that, I would like to encourage you and your family to maintain good relations with your relatives who are not Muslims. You may help the poor among them and show them every kindness. But such help should not come from zakah if there are other Muslims who need it.
A2. If this woman looks after her children, she is not required to sell her jewellery. She may be helped with zakah if she is poor. You say that she does not have a regular income. It may be that her income, though irregular, is sufficient for her needs. In this case, she does not need help. If she is really poor, but sometimes she receives good income which may provide for her needs for a few months, then she is back to poverty, she may be helped during her periods of need. In fact, she must be helped, if not from zakah then from other charity, or sadaqah.
10. Reading the Qur'an
Q. If one reads a Qur'anic translation, does he receive reward for such reading?
A. Reading a translation of the Qur’an does not earn the same reward as reading the Qur’an itself, for the simple reason that the Qur’an is the word of God, while a translation is the translator’s rendering of its meaning in his or her own language. However, reading a translation of the Qur’an in order to understand its meaning and comply with its orders is highly commendable and will, God willing, earn reward from God.
Narrated By Abu Huraira : Allah's Apostle said, "If the people knew the reward for pronouncing the Adhan and for standing in the first row (in congregational prayers) and found no other way to get that except by drawing lots they would draw lots, and if they knew the reward of the zuhr prayer (in the early moments of its stated time) they would race for it (go early) and if they knew the reward of isha and fajr (morning) prayers in congregation, they would come to offer them even if they had to crawl." (Bukhari).
The Adhan is the Muslim technique to inform the people that the time for prayer has started. This call to prayer is said before every prayer five times a day, hence, it is done out loud through a speaker in Muslim countries. The Adhan is always done in Arabic no matter whether the people of that country speak Arabic or not. Allah Says in the Qur'an: O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know! (Qur'an 62:9). The scholars have said that the words "...the CALL is proclaimed for the Salat (prayer)..." in this verse is in reference to the Adhan, hence, even though the Adhan is not mentioned word for word and its respective rulings in the Qur'an, they are, however, mentioned in the Alhadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad . Therefore, it proves that the Adhan "...obtained the status of Revelation..." (Bulugh Al-Maram P. 68 Footnote #3).
Below is a list of conditions and rules that apply to Adhan:
Allah is Most Great
Allah is Most Great
Allah is Most Great
Allah is Most Great
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah
I bear witness that Muhammad () is the Messenger of Allah
I bear witness that Muhammad () is the Messenger of Allah
Come to prayer
Come to Prayer
Come to success
Come to success
Allah is Most Great
Allah is Most Great
There is none worthy of worship except Allah
The difference in Fajr
The only difference in the Fajr prayer is that two extra lines (shown below) are added after the second (line 12 above), but the rest of the Adhan will be said in exactly the same manner. So the Adhan for Fajr will sound like this:
First, the Adhan will be said in the exact same manner for the first 12 lines, then the following two lines will be added:
PRAYER IS BETTER THAN SLEEP
PRAYER IS BETTER THAN SLEEP
Finally, the remaining of the Adhan will sound exactly the same, like so:
Allah is Most Great
Allah is Most Great
There is none worthy of worship except Allah
NOTE: This procedure is ONLY done in the Fajr prayer.
Sunday, June 22, 2008
Some of my closest Muslim and very religious friends (wish to remain anonymous) would like to offer FREE prayers/solah and dua (doa) services for all Muslims. (every Friday Night)
This thread is now opened to request your wish to be prayed by them.
In return, the group do not wish anything material or monetary but :
Wishers are to dedicate 'Surah Al-Fatihah' to this group - before and until after the wish been answered/granted by Allah SWT.
Optionally you can also add 'Surah Al-Waqiah' dedicated to this group. The recitals of both Surahs are for spiritual purposes only.
Please submit your wish to be prayed to Allah SWT but be reminded that all postings shall be moderated to filter out contradictory wishes.
Include also optional details:
a) your full name, (if possible both father's and mother's names as well)
b) location, (not full address - just district, province/state and country only)
c) Your wish to be prayed
If you wish to provide your e-mail addresses, please send them to email@example.com (Please note that I'm only acting on behalf of this group)
To avoid spamming, you are discouraged to write your e-mail addresses here in this tread.
Should you wish to :
a) donate to the group voluntarily or
b) fulfil the vow (nazar) for Allah SWT granting your wish,
you may also send details to the same e-mail address abovementioned.
However, this latter part is optional.
Ulama lembut atau keras?
SOALAN: Pada masa mutakhir ini, ramai cerdik pandai agama kita keluaran dalam negara mahu pun luar negara. Ada antara mereka dari Mesir, Madinah mahu pun Jordan. Begitu juga keluaran Universiti Malaya (UM) dan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Kadangkala pendapat mereka berbeza. Sukar saya memilih mana satu pendapat yang betul. Apa nasihat tuan?
– Umat Keliru, Mentakab.
JAWAPAN: Nasihat saya mudah sahaja, cari yang betul-betul mantap ilmu mereka. Lihat juga akhlak mereka. Justeru ramai lepasan agama (tidak semuanya ulama) yang ilmu mereka masih mendatar (cetek), ada juga yang akhlaknya boleh dipersoalkan, belum memiliki akhlak ulama sebenar. Ada antara mereka yang terlalu penakut dan ada juga yang terlalu berani. Saya berpendapat yang seimbang dan sederhana daripada segi ilmu dan akhlak itu yang lebih baik.
Berilmu tetapi jumud, berani tetapi kurang ilmu, emosi tak bertempat dan pelbagai lagi sifat negatif golongan agama ini...kesemuanya harus diambil pertimbangan.
Kepada penanya, ingin saya perbetulkan, bukan semua lulusan ugama (sekadar ada B.A. atau M.A. hatta P.hD) boleh digolongkan sebagai ulama. Paling merisaukan, mereka yang hanya ada ilmu separuh. Kadangkala kokok mereka lebih.
Syaikh Muhammad al-Ghazali pernah menegur mereka yang belajar ilmu hari Sabtu, pada hari Ahad sudah mengajar, hari Isnin sudah ditabal mahaguru atau syeikh atau ulama besar, (apabila sudah berserban dan berjubah atau memakai title ustaz), hari Selasa dengan berani menegur orang itu dan sianu, kononnya mereka tokoh, aku pun tokoh. Berani tanpa segan menegur semua perkara yang dia pun jahil mengenainya.
Ulama separuh jalan seperti inilah kadangkala –kata Muhammad al-Ghazali- menjadi tumpuan ramai, kerana gambaran zahir, berjubah singkat dan berjanggut lebat contohnya, berani mempertikaikan segala perkara. Pertikaian remeh temeh ini subur, pada masa Islam disingkirkan dalam perkara dasar. Lalu ulama berbicara tentang hukum membatal wuduk, atau bolehkah Allah dilihat dengan mata di akhirat kelak. Mereka banyak berhujah tentang darah haid dan hukum menyimpan misai.
Mereka yang tidak ingin Islam menjadi dasar kehidupan akan menjadi lebih seronok dalam keadaan begini berlaku, jika orang ramai tenggelam dalam perbincangan yang mandul begini. Kumpulan anti Islam, mereka tidak selesa apabila ada ulama yang mula bercakap tentang perkhidmatan negara untuk umum atau untuk individu? Kenapa kekayaan negara hanya berligar di sekitar beberapa kerat kumpulan? Apakah manusia perlu hidup bebas atau takut-takut?
Adalah ulama palsu namanya, jika asyik berbincang tentang hukum menyentuh perempuan batal wuduk atau tidak, daripada membincangkan wajib atau harus mengambil bahagian dalam pilihan raya. Apa sumbangan orang Islam atau agenda ‘menghadhari’ tamadun dunia, tak kira apa nama, Islam hadhari atau hadharah Islamiah.
Masyarakat kita banyak disogok oleh ulama separuh masak ini dengan isu-isu kecil, pendapat lemah dan mazhab menyusahkan, malah tidak dapat memahami isu-isu semasa. Mereka memberi fatwa dalam realiti yang sudah berbeza. Dalam bahasa yang mudah, mereka jahil dengan “fiqh al-waqi”, kefahaman tentang realiti terkini.
Satu lagi ‘kejahilan’ mereka yang menolak pandangan imam-imam mazhab, kononnya mahu mencedok sendiri daripada al-Quran dan hadis. Memang Islam tidak menyuruh kita fanatik kepada mana-mana mazhab, tetapi lebih teruk lagi mereka yang berijtihad tanpa kelayakan. Bagaimana boleh berijtihad, jika nak memahami dalil pun belum tahu.
Kita bosan dengan tohmahan kononnya Imam Malik tidak tahu hadis istiftah, atau Abu Hanifah tidak menyuruh pengikutnya baca basmalah ketika menjadi makmum, atau bersembahyang selepas menyentuh kulit perempuan. Berani mereka mengatakan Imam Malik dan Abu Hanifah Jahil hadis, atau Imam Shafi‘i jahil. Siapa mereka ini?
Ulama al-Azhar yang dulu-dulu (termasuk di Malaysia), mampu menyelesaikan fitnah seperti ini, setelah mereka belajar Islam; memahami pendapat salaf dan khalaf, belajar berbagai-bagai kitab tafsir dan kitab hadis. Tetapi mereka yang baru pandai ini terutama mutakhir ini, hanya masih bertateh bahasa Arabnya, hanya baru belajar satu dua buah kitab hadis atau tafsir, sudah berani menyerang ulama itu dan ini, satu perbuatan yang kurang berakhlak dan tidak beradab.
Beberapa orang yang sekadar tahu membaca beberapa buah hadis sudah berani mengakui tahu akan Islam semua sekali, satu keangkuhan namanya.
Justeru itu, kita harus bersangka baik kepada semua ulama kita yang benar; ada di kalangan mereka yang bersifat lembut, ada juga yang agak bersikap keras. Tetapi tujuan mereka semua memberi panduan kepada orang ramai. Mereka ulama pembimbing (mursyid).
Jangan kita asyik bersangka buruk kepada orang lain. Kadangkala mereka itu jauh lebih baik daripada diri kita yang kita sangka serba tahu ini. Ada mereka yang suka memberi nasihat secara lembut kerana ia mungkin lebih berkesan dan ada juga mereka yang suka bercakap secara kasar dan keras kerana boleh memberi kesan.
Tetapi saya berpendapat, fitrah manusia tidak suka mereka diserang dengan keras. Saya masih ingat cerita buku sekolah rendah tahun 60-an (maaf contoh kurang elok) cerita dua jenis angin, angin ribut dan angin sepoi-sepoi bahasa yang menunjukkan kekuatan masing-masing. Angin ribut dengan kuat meniupkan si beruk yang sedang berpaut di sebatang pohon kayu. Makin kencang tiupan angin itu, makin kuat si beruk berpegang kerana takut jatuh.
Apabila tiba giliran angin sepoi bahasa dengan lembutnya menghembus bayu sejuk kepada si beruk itu, sehingga dia rasa mengantuk, lalu jatuh. Moral cerita ini, tidak semua yang keras itu berhasil dan tidak semua yang lembut itu tidak menjadi.
Kelibat tokoh hebat pun ada berbagai-bagai ragam, dari Ibn Taymiyyah yang keras sampai kepada al-Ghazali yang lebih lembut, para fuqaha yang garang, ahli sufi yang lembut, hingga Imam Ahmad dan membawa kepada al-Syafi‘i. Mereka berbeza cara dan gaya.
Usahlah kita membelah bagikan ulama kita kepada banyak kumpulan, kerajaan atau pembangkang. Mereka yang berpegang kepada kebenaran, itulah ulama sebenar. Jangan dilihat mereka salaf atau khalaf, ahli fikah atau ahli tafsir, yang ikhlas jua diterima amalan mereka.
Saya harap anda sudah ada kayu ukur menilai ulama terhadap keilmuan dan kesalehan mereka, bukan apa parti mereka, apa mazhab mereka, apa bangsa mereka atau kumpulan mana mereka ini. Jika inilah kayu ukurnya, orang itu masih tergolong puak fanatik yang dilarang agama. Wallahualam.
Tuesday, June 17, 2008
Dr. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal-August 2004
ORIGINAL SOURCE (WITH PICS)
Acknowledgement : I would like to acknowledge the great help that Mr. M A H Madi * provided into the English translation of this article
لقراءة المقالة باللغة العربية ، من فضلك اضغط هنا
Since Aristotle had summed up the prevailing theories in his age relating to the creation of the embryo, controversy continued among the supporters of the theory of the full dwarf embryo existing in man’s sperm and those of the theory of the full dwarf embryo created out of the woman’s menstrual blood coagulation (thickening). Most of them believed that man was reduced into that sperm drop, and they drew a figure in which they imagined the embryo as a full creature in the sperm drop, which then grew up in the womb as a small tree.
None of both groups could realize that man’s sperm and woman’s ovum participate in the creation of the embryo, as supported by the Italian Scientist “Spallanzani” in the year of 1775. In 1783, Van Beneden was able to confirm this statement, and thus the idea of the dwarf embryo had been discarded. During the years 1888 and 1909 Boveri proved that chromosomes when divided carry the different genetic characteristics. Morgan, in 1912, was able to determine the role of genes, existing in certain parts of chromosomes, in hereditary.
Therefore, it is clear that mankind did not realize that the embryo is created of a man’s sperm mingled with a woman’s ovum except in the 18th century, and only to be confirmed at the beginning of the 20th century.
On the other hand, the Holy Quran and the Prophetic speeches have confirmed in a very accurate scientific manner the creation of man from a mingled fluid-drop (nutfa amshaj), as coined by the Quran, which says ;
( إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَانَ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ أَمْشَاجٍ نَبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا) (الإنسان:2)
“Verily We created man from a drop of a mingled fluid-drop (nutfa amshaj), in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight.” (76:2).
It has been agreed upon by commentators of the Holy Quran that “amshaj” means mingling, as man’s water mingles with that of the woman, and this is also what the Prophet (peace be upon him) confirmed in one of his speeches. Imam Ahmed indicated in his book “Al Musnad” that a Jew passed by the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) while he was addressing his companions. Some people from Quarish said; “O Jew! This man proclaims that he is a prophet.” The Jew said: “ I will ask him of something no one knows except a prophet.” He asked the prophet (PBUH); “ O Mohammed! What is man created from? The Prophet (PBUH) said; “O Jew! Man is created from both: man’s fluid (nutfa) and woman’s fluid.” The Jew said; “This is said by those prophets before you.” .
In the next few pages, the embryological developments as indicated in the Quranic verses will be discussed, while shedding light on the fixed scientific facts in each stage of development.
Scientific facts :
The sperms are formed in the testicles, which in turn are created, as proved by embryology, from cells underneath the kidneys at the back and then go down to the lower abdomen at the last weeks of pregnancy. Man’s fluid mainly contains the following components: the sperms which should be gushing, and motile to cause fertilization and Prostaglandin which causes contractions to the uterus, thus helping the transport of sperms into the place of fertilization. The man's fluid (semen) contains also sugar necessary for providing energy for the sperms, different fluids for neutralising the acids at the entrance of the uterus and creating a slippery environment for the easy movement of the sperms.
While hundred millions of these sperms (500 m.- 600 m.) enter through the vagina to the uterine cervix, only one sperm is able to fertilize the ovum (Fig. 2); crossing through a long distance to reach the place of fertilization in the Fallopian Uterine Tube which connects the ovary with the uterus. The distance is full of obstacles that can be compared with the distance man takes to reach the moon! After direct fertilization, a quick change occurs to the membrane of the ovum preventing the entrance of the rest of the sperms.
The sperm contains 23 chromosomes, of which one chromosome determines the sex of the embryo. The chromosome in the sperm is either (Y) or (X), while the chromosome in the ovum is always (X). When a sperm of the chromosome type (Y) mingles with an ovum of the chromosome (X), the formed zygote will be male (XY), whereas the embryo will be female (XX) if the sperm (X) mingles with an (X) ovum. So, the sex of the embryo is determined by the sperm (the male), rather than the ovum (the female).
After 5 hours of forming the zygote, which is the primary human cell containing 46 chromosomes, the dominant and recessive genetic characteristics can appear in the parent's sons or grandsons (the stage of genetic programming) . The zygote is then divided quickly without a change in size and move from the Fallopian Tube (connecting the ovary and the uterus) towards the uterus, where it is implanted as seeds are implanted in the soil.
The Uterus is the place where the embryo grows and develops before emerging as a fully created and well formed child. The uterus is distinguished as a safe place to perform this function for the following reasons:
1- The location of the uterus in the woman’s pelvis, where it is protected with ligaments and fascia that hold the uterus from the sides and allow its mobility and growth to hundred times its size at full term pregnancy.
2- Muscles of pelvis and perineum fix the uterus in-situ.
3- The secretion of Progesterone (pregnancy hormone) helps stabilize the uterus and slows down the uterine contractions.
4- The embryo in uterus is surrounded with different membranes that produce amniotic fluid which the embryo swims in to protect the embryo from the effect of external traumas .
The process of fertilization and the travel of the zygote to the uterus continue for about 6 days, and the zygote keeps implanting ( known as blastocyst) and growing in the uterus wall for 15 days, when the Alaqa (thick clotted blood) stage begins.
Reflections and comments on related Quranic verses:
“Nutfa” in Arabic means “very little water” or “a drop of water”. This coincides with man’s water which contain sperms as part of its components. The sperm or (spermatozoon) is reproduced from the despised lowly water (nutfa) and looks like a long-tailed fish (this is one of the meanings of Sulalah). Allah the Almighty says;
( الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ . ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ ) (السجدة :7-8)
“He It is Who created all things in the best way and began the creation of man from clay, and made his progeny from an extract of despised fluid (Sulalah) ” (32: 7-8)
The other meaning of Sulalah is "extract", means the essential or best part of something . By either implication, it means "part of a whole" indicating that the origin of creation is from only part of man's fluid and not all of it (which contains many components as shown above) .
Clarifying the role of the nutfa in creation, He the Almighty says;
( فَلْيَنظُرِ الْإِنسَانُ مِمَ خُلِقَ. خُلِقَ مِن مَّاء دَافِقٍ) (الطارق 5-6)
“So, let man consider of what he was created . He was created of gushing water ” (86: 5-6)
and also says;
( خَلَقَ الإِنسَانَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ مُّبِينٌ ) (النحل : 4)
“He has created man from a sperm (fluid-drop) and behold this same (man) becomes an open disputer.” (16: 4).
The Quran tells us also that the essence of man is not the whole semen, but only a small part of it. this is explained in the Quran :
( أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى ، أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِيٍّ يُمْنَى ) القيامة 36-37
Does man think that he will be left uncontrolled (without purpose)? Was he not once a fluid-drop of ejected semen?. (75:36-37
As we have seen , the Quran informs us that man is made not from the entire semen, but only a small part of it. That the particular emphasis in this statement announces a fact only discovered by modern science is evidence that the statement is divine in origin. The divine statement also reiterates that man’s characteristics are determined and decreed in the nutfa stage, as He says
( قُتِلَ الْإِنسَانُ مَا أَكْفَرَهُ . مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ . مِن نُّطْفَةٍ خَلَقَهُ فَقَدَّرَهُ ) ( عبس17-19)
“Woe to man! What has made him reject (Allah)? From what stuff has He created him? From a nutfa (fluid-drop) He has created him, and then moulds him in due proportions.” (80: 17-19).
And Allah says :
(إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَانَ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ أَمْشَاجٍ نَبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا ) (الإنسان:2)
“Verily We created man of a fluid-drop (nutfa), mingling (amshaj) , in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts of) hearing and sight.” (76:2).
The mingled nutfa in this verse reveals the Quran miraculous nature. Nutfa, in Arabic, is a single small drop of water, but it was described here as (amshaj) , which means its structure consists of combined mixtures . This fits with the scientific finding, as the zygote is shaped as a drop, and is simultaneously a mixture of male fluid chromosomes and female ovum chromosomes.
Has anyone ever thought, before the Quran was revealed, that man’s nutfa, when ejected, is responsible for determining if the embryo will be male or female? Has this ever occurred to one’s mind? The Quran says;
( وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَىِ . من نُّطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَى) ) النجم 45-46 )
“That He created the pairs, male and female, from a fluid-drop sperm as it is emitted.” (53: 45-46), confirming that man’s gender as male or female is determined when the sperm drop is emitted. Who told the Prophet Mohammed that the sperm (nutfa) with one of its types (Y) or (X) is responsible for determining the sex of the embryo? This was not discovered except after the invention of microscopes in the past century, when it was possible then to know that the embryo being a male or female is only determined by the sperm (nutfa), rather than the ovum. In other words, we were in the beginning of the 20th century and the whole of mankind were not aware that the nutfa decrees if the embryo is male or female. While the Quran, which was revealed 14 centuries ago, has stated this fact in a very clear manner.
Here is a remarkable note! We have mentioned earlier that the sperms are formed in the testicles, which in turn are created, as proved by embryology, from cells underneath the kidneys at the back and then go down to the lower abdomen at the last weeks of pregnancy. This is in confirmation of Allah’s saying :
( وإذ أخذ ربك من بني آدم من ظهورهم ذريتهم ) (الأعراف 172)
“And remember when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seeds…” (7: 172).
This is a clear indication that the origin of progeny is at the region of the back where the embryonic testicles are formed. So, praise be to Allah the Omniscient.
The uterus, as mentioned before, is considered as a place settled (Makeen) and safe for the growth and protection of the embryo, according to reasons mentioned earlier. We find that Quran mentions and affirms this fact 14 centuries ago, as He Almighty says:
( فَجَعَلْنَاهُ فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ . إِلَى قَدَرٍ مَّعْلُومٍ . فَقَدَرْنَا فَنِعْمَ الْقَادِرُونَ ) ( المرسلات :21-23)
”The which (embryo) We placed in a place of settlement, firmly fixed for a period (of gestation), determined. For We do determine, for We are the best to determine (things). (77: 21-23).
Al Alaqa ( Leech-like clot)
The stage of Alaqa starts on the 15th day and ends on the 23rd or 24th day, after which the embryo is gradually developed and looks like a leech, which lives in ponds. Alaqa hangs to the lining of the uterus by the umbilical cord. Blood is then formed in the vessels at the shape of closed islands, and is not circulated in blood vessels, thus having the image of clotted blood.
Although it is in the nature of human body to expel any external matter, the uterus does not reject the alaqa implanted in its lining despite the fact that half of the alaqa components and genes are from an external source (the father). This is because the region of syncytial cells in alaqa have no antigens.
It is noteworthy that the primitive streak is created at first on the day 14th or 15th, in which the primitive node appears. Out of this primitive streak, stem cells are composed, as well as the sources of the main tissues of Mesoderm, Ectoderm and Endoderm, which will form the different organs and tissues of the body as seen in. At the end of the 3rd week, the primitive streak shrinks and the remnant stays in the sacrococcygeal region at the end of the spine, maintaining the remaining of stem cells in this region. This explains why some tumors in the coccygeal region which is called Teratoma can contain different tissues (muscles, skin, cartilage, bones and teeth as well), contrary to the tumors that exist in different regions and take its toll on one definite tissue.
Reflections and comments on related Quranic verses and Sunnah:
Transformation process from nutfa to alaqa takes more than 10 days till the zygote clings to the primitive placenta by way of a connecting stalk which later becomes the umbilical cord. Therefore, the Quranic statement uses the conjunction article (thumma) in Arabic, indicating sequence of events with time delay and not using (fa) which also means "then" but indicates rapid progression without any delay. Quran states:
(ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً) (سورة المؤمنون14)
“then of that fluid-drop (nutfa) We created a leech-like clot" (23:14) .
Alaqa, in Arabic, has several meanings:
1- A leech that lives in ponds and sucks the blood of other creatures.
2- A thing attached or clings to something else.
3- Clotted or coagulated blood.
All these meanings fit exactly with the reality of the human embryo after being implanted in the lining of uterus (endometrium), as the embryo looks like a leech, while clinging to the endometrium through the umbilical cord, blood vessels initiated in the form of closed islands giving it the image of a clotted blood.
A quick transformation then occurs from alaqa to mudgha within two days (day 24 to day 26). Therefore, the Quran describes this rapid change with the use of the conjunctive article (fa) (i.e., then) in Arabic, to indicate rapid progression of transformation :
(فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً) (المؤمنون: 14)
“then We changed the Alaqa (leech-like clot) into a Mudgha (chewed-like lump) ” (23: 14).
So even the use of different conjunctive articles has miraculous indications, reflecting the difference in embryonic stages.
Thus, the stage of alaqa is the second stage of embryonic stages, and is mentioned in the Quran in several verses. He the Almighty says;
(أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِنْ مَنِيٍّ يُمْنَى . ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى . فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالأُنثَى) (القيامة: 37-39)
“Was he not a drop of sperm emitted (in lowly form)? Then did he become a leech-like clot; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion. And of him He made two sexes, male and female.”(75: 37-39),
And in a surah called al-alaq, i.e., a leech-like clot, Allah says;
( خلق الإنسان من علق ) (العلق 2)
“(We) Created man, out of a leech-like clot.” (96: 2).
Further to the point of primitive streak, it is the first to be created in embryo, and out of which, stem cells are composed, as well as the different organs and tissues; and at the end of the 3rd week, it shrinks, and its remaining stays in the sacrococcygeal region at the end of the spine, maintaining the remaining stem cells in this region. This explains and coincides with the speech of the Prophet (PBUH) which was narrated by Abu Huraira in Ahmad’s book “Al Musnad”:
“All of the son of Adam decays, and is eaten by dust except for the coccyx, of which man is created and in which man is re-built.”
So, cells which form the tissues and the organs of man are placed in coccyx and out of which man is re-created. Verily said the Prophet of Allah .
Here a very important question arises: why did the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) raise such a scientific issue at a time no one was aware of, and how had he acquired such knowledge if he was not bound up with inspiration and taught by the creator of heaven and earth? The answer is that Allah the Almighty knows with His encompassing knowledge that man will come to know one day the embryonic stages of development, and will know the role of the primitive streak, so He inspired prophet Mohammad (PBUH) to speak out such a fact to be a witness on the genuineness of his prophethood and message, that fits every time and age.
Al Mudgha (chewed-like lump of flesh)
The embryo is transformed from the stage of alaqa to the beginning of the stage of mudgha on the 24th day to the 26th day, which is a very brief period if compared with the period of the nutfa changing to alaqa.
This stage starts with the appearance of somites on the 24th or 25th day on top of the embryonic scapula, and then gradually appear at the embryo’s buttock. On the 28th day the embryo is formed of several bulges, with grooves in between, thus giving the embryo the image of a chewed gum. The embryo turns and rolls in the cavity of the uterus during this stage which ends by the end of the 6th week.
It is noteworthy that the stage of mudgha starts with the growth and increase of cells in a large number. The mudgha looks like a piece of meat which has no distinguished structure, then after a few days, the second stage starts, called the stage of formation (takhaloq), where some organs begin to appear, such as the eyes, tongue and the lips , but human distinguishing features do not appear except at the end of the 8th week. Limbs bulges (hands and legs) also appear in this stage.
In the 5th week the heart starts beating and the embryo has already developed its placenta and amniotic sac.
The placenta is burrowing into the uterine wall to access oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream.
Reflections on Quran and Sunnah :
Mudgha in Arabic means the material chewed by teeth. This gives an accurate description of the embryonic stage as the embryo shape looks like a chewed material which constantly changes, with the appearance of somites bulges. The differences in these somites look like the “teeth imprints” over bread bite. The embryo turns and rolls in the cavity of the uterus as a piece of chewed material in the mouth.
The stage of mudgha comes after the stage of alaqa. This coincides with the Holy verse:
(فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً) (المؤمنون: 14)
“And of that clot We made a (foetus) lump.” (23: 14). Of the characteristics of mudgha is that it elongates and changes shape when chewed. This is exactly what occurs to the embryo in this stage. As we mentioned before, the mudgha has an early form before the creation and formation of organs and another form following the formation of organs. The Quranic verse states:
( يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضْغَةٍ مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاء إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى) ( الحج 5)
“O mankind! If ye have a doubt about the Recreation (consider) that We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a chewed-like lump of flesh, formed and unformed, in order that We may manifest (Our power) to you; and We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term.” (22: 5) .
Thus, there are two types of mudgha: formed and unformed. The formed one is the embryo itself which starts forming into different organs with specific functions and the unformed one is the placenta which starts developing in the 5th week (around day 35) of the mudgha stage . And Allah knows best !
The mudgha stage ends at the 6th week (i.e. 40 days). Imam Muslim narrated in his “Sahih” on the authority of Abdullah Bin Masoud that he said; “Allah's prophet - Mohammad (PBUH) - the truthful and trustworthy, told us;
"The creation of each one of you is composed in the mother‘s womb in forty days, in that (creation) it turns into such a clot, then in that turns into such a mudgha and then Allah sends an angel and orders him to write four things, i.e., his provision, his age, and whether he will be of the wretched or the blessed (in the Hereafter). Then the soul is breathed into him. And by Allah, a person among you (or a man) may do deeds of the people of the Fire till there is only a cubit or an arm-breadth distance between him and the Fire, but then that writing (which Allah has ordered the angel to write) precedes, and he does the deeds of the people of Paradise and enters it; and a man may do the deeds of the people of Paradise till there is only a cubit or two between him and Paradise, and then that writing precedes and he does the deeds of the people of the Fire and enters it."
Who told the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) all these facts? Did he have anatomy and measurement tools, or microscopes to tell us the characteristics of an embryo no more than 1cm tall? It is He Allah (Who told him), the Only One, the Subduer.
The Stage of bones
During the 6th week, the cartilaginous skeleton starts to spread in the body. Yet, we do not see the human image features except at the beginning of the 7th week, where the shape of the embryo takes the look of the skeleton. Transformation from the mudgha form to the beginning of the skeleton form occurs in a very short period of time at the end of the 6th week and the beginning of the 7th week. This stage is characterized with the appearance of the skeleton which gives the embryo the human image.
Reflection on Quran and Sunnah :
The term of “izam” (bones), coined by Quran, accurately expresses this stage in the life of the embryo, which includes the external appearance and is considered the most important change in the internal structure, with its associated new relations among body organs and regularity of embryo shape. This stage is clearly distinguished from the preceding stage of mudgha (chewed-like lump of flesh). Allah says;
( فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ) (المؤمنون: 14)
“then We made out of that mudgha (chewed-like lump of flesh) bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create.” (23: 14) .
Bone formation is a notable process in this stage, as embryo is transformed from the image of mudgha which has no features of human image to the beginning of the skeleton image in a very short period of no more than few days at the end of the 6th week ; therefore, the quranic verse uses the Arabic conjunctive article (fa) instead of (thumma) to indicate quick sequence of events.
This skeleton gives the embryo the image of a human being after being clothed with lahm (muscles). The two eyes and the two lips then appear, and the head is differentiated from the trunk and the limbs. This is in accordance with the Prophet’s (PBUH) saying in "Sahih Muslim"; “When 42 nights have passed over the conception , Allah sends an angel to it, who shapes it (into human form) and makes its ears, eyes, skin, muscles and bones. Then he says; ` O Lord, is it male or female?`, and your Lord decides what He wishes and the angel records it.”
After 42 nights (6 weeks), the embryo begins to take the human image with the appearance of cartilaginous skeleton, then the external genitals begin to appear later on (the 10th week). In the 7th week (Figure 13) the human image gets clearer with the start of the spread of skeleton. This week represents (between 40 and 45 days) the demarcation line between mudgha and human image.
So, it is well proved that the Quran's words are very well contrived and scientifically accurate, as they are composed by Allah Who has perfected everything .
The stage of muscles (clothing with flesh)
This stage is characterized with muscles encircling and tightly surrounding the bones. With the completion of clothing the bones with lahm (muscles and flesh), the human image starts to be more clear, as human parts are appropriately connected. After completion of myogenesis (muscle formation), the embryo can start to move.
This stage, which starts at the end of the 7th week and ends at the end of the 8th week, is considered as the end of the stage of takhaloq (formation). Embryologists termed the end of the 8th week as the end of the embryology stage followed by the foetus stage which coincides with the Nash’ah (developing) stage as Quran stated. Allah says;
( فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ) (المؤمنون: 14)
“And clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create.” (23: 14)
Until very recently, embryologists assumed that the bones and muscles in an embryo developed at the same time. For this reason, for a long time, some people claimed that these verses conflicted with science. Yet, advanced microscopic research conducted by virtue of new technological developments has revealed that the revelation of the Quran is word for word correct. These observations at the microscopic level showed that the development inside the mother's womb takes place in just the way it is described in the verses. First, the cartilage tissue of the embryo ossifies. Then muscular cells that are selected from amongst the tissue around the bones come together and wrap around the bones
The stage of Nash’ah (developing) and viability
By the end of the 8th week, a new stage starts where important processes occur. The rate of developing accelerates compared with the previous one. The embryo transforms into another creature, as the sizes of head, body and limbs start to be balanced and regular between the 9th and 12th week. At the 10th week, external genital organs appear, and the skeleton develops structure from soft cartilaginous to hard calcic bones at the 12th week. Limbs and fingers are distinguished at the same week. The gender of the embryo is manifest with the clear appearance of genitalia.
The weight of the embryo increases noticeably. Voluntary and involuntary muscles develop, and voluntary movements start in this stage. In the 16th week (112 days) the foetus can grasp with his hands, kick, or even somersault
In this stage the organs and the systems become well prepared to function. The foetus is ready for life outside the womb starting from the 22nd week to the 26th week (i.e., after the completion of the 6th month of gestation), when the respiratory system is ready to function and the nervous system is able to adjust the temperature of foetus body.
The first sense to develop in a developing human embryo is hearing. The foetus can hear sounds after the 24th week. Subsequently, the sense of sight is developed and by the 28th week, the retina becomes sensitive to light.
In this stage, no new system or organs are formed, and the uterus provides food and suitable environment for the foetus to thrive until the stage of labour.
Reflections on Quranic verses :
This stage starts after the stage of clothing the bones with lahm (muscles and flesh), i.e., at the beginning of the 9th week, taking a period of almost 3 weeks. This is indicated with the use of conjunctive article (thumma) then, which denotes a time break between clothing with lahm and developing into another creature: He the Almighty says;
(فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَر فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ ) (المؤمنون: 14)
“And clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create ” (23: 14).
After the development of the cartilaginous skeleton, clothing it with muscles, and the head and the limbs are distinguished, the embryo changes into a human creature well differentiated from other creatures.
During this stage, some important processes occur in the development of the embryo, which are clearly described in the Holy Quran and can be summarized as follows:
1- Nash’ah (developing) which is clearly noticed in the accelerated rate of growth at the 9th week compared with the previous stages.
2- Khalqan Akhar (another creature): this description coincides with the first one and indicates that the embryo has changed in the nash’ah stage into another creature, i.e., the foetus. Limbs and external organs begin to appear, and fingers and external genitalia are distinguished. Allah the Almighty says;
( هوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَاء لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ) آل عمران 6
“He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases. There is no god but He, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (3:6)
Here is an exquisite remark. Allah says in Surat Al Zumar;
( يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ خَلْقًا مِن بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ ثَلَاثٍ) (الزمر6 )
“He creates you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.” (39:6), thus indicating the continuation of the embryonic development and the change from one stage into another, as explained earlier. Embryologists have confirmed that the foetus is surrounded, during the stages of development, with three membranes:
1- The amnion membrane which contains a fluid encompassing the foetus to make it in a state of swimming, thus protecting it from trauma that the uterus encounters, and facilitates the foetus movements for re-position smoothly during labour. (Figure 17)
2- The chorion membrane.
3- The decidua membrane.
Some scholars interpreted the three veils of darkness with the amniotic membrane surrounding the uterus, wall of uterus, and abdomen wall. Yet, Allah knows best.
As we have mentioned before, the foetus becomes ready for life outside the womb after completion of the 6th month. It is noticed that the Quranic statement indicates in Surat Ahqaf that the stage of conception and incubation takes 30 months;
( وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلاثُونَ شَهْرًا ) (الأحقاف: 15)
“The bearing of him (the child) and the weaning of him is thirty months ” (46: 15),
whereas in Surat Luqman, it is indicated that the period of incubation is 24 months;
( وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ) (لقمان: 14)
“And in two years was his weaning.” (31: 14).
With a simple calculation, we deduce that the quranic statement decides that the least period of conception is 6 months as mentioned earlier, being a scientific fact, and before the 22nd week, in which this stage starts, the foetus is delivered abortus (not able to survive) in most cases. Praise be to Allah is the Omniscient.
It is very interesting to mention that the first sense to develop in a developing human embryo is hearing. The foetus can hear sounds after the 24th week. Subsequently, the sense of sight is developed and by the 28th week, the retina becomes sensitive to light. Consider the following three Quranic verses related to the development of the senses in the embryo
" وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَة " (السجدة 9)
َAnd HE gave You (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (And understanding) - 32:9
" إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ أَمْشَاجٍ نَّبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا " (الإنسان 2)
Verily We created man from a drop of a mingled fluid-drop (nutfa amshaj), in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight - 76:2
" وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْشَأَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ " (المؤمنون 78)
It is HE WHO has created For you (the faculties of) Hearing, sight, feeling And understanding: little thanks It is ye give! - 23:78
In all these three verses the sense of hearing is mentioned before the sense of sight. Thus the Quranic description matches with the discoveries in modern embryology that the sense of hearing is develops before the sense of sight
The stage of Labour
After the passing of 9 lunar months (38 weeks), the foetus completes growth in the uterus. It is time now to go out after the end of this specified period. Allah says;
(وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاء إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى) ( الحج :5)
“And We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term ” (22:5). So the term is appointed and determined;
( فَجَعَلْنَاهُ فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ . إِلَى قَدَرٍ مَّعْلُومٍ . فَقَدَرْنَا فَنِعْمَ الْقَادِرُونَ ) (المرسلات :21-23)
“The which (foetus) We placed in a place of rest, firmly fixed, for a period (of gestation), determined. For We do determine, for We are the best to determine (things). (77: 21-23)
Before elaborating the stages of labour, it is noteworthy to mention the Quranic reference to the benefits of dates for the woman in labour, in which the status of the Lady Mary (mother of prophet Issa "PBUH") is described in the following verses as ;
(فَأَجَاءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَى جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَذَا وَكُنْتُ نَسْيًا منسيّا . فَنَادَاهَا مِنْ تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا . وَهُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَاقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَبًا جَنِيًّا . فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِـي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ) (مريم 23-26)
“And the birth pains surprised her by the trunk of the palm tree: she said; ‘Ah! Would I had died before this! And become a thing forgotten.’ But (a voice) cried to her from beneath: ‘Grieve not! Your Lord has set below you a rivulet. Shake to you the palm-trunk , and there shall come falling upon you dates fresh and ripe. So eat , and drink, and be comforted …” (19: 23-26).
It has been scientifically proved that dates have several benefits. Of these benefits, for the woman in labour:
* Dates are rich in fibers which help avoid constipation, as it is a natural laxative, and helps a smooth delivery.
* Dates contain more than 70% glucose, which is easily absorbed and assimilated, thus ensuring the provision of necessary energy during labour.
* Dates is also rich in minerals, particularly magnesium which is necessary for cells physiology, and potassium which is necessary for the muscles, and iron which is necessary to treat anemia.
* Dates contain a substance that helps alert the muscles of uterus to contract and increase contraction during delivery (this substance resembles Oxytocin hormone excreted by pituitary glands). This is in addition to many other benefits ( no room to mention here) . Praise be to Allah, the High and the Able.
Labour, which ends with delivery, is comprised of 4 stages:
1- Stage of dilatation of cervix and contraction of uterus muscle. This stage takes about 7-12 hours and occurs as a result of several factors: mechanic and hormonal. A set of hormones is excreted to help facilitate the stage of labour. Of these hormones are: Prostaglandin, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Adreno Cortico Tropin, Corticol, Oxytocin, Estrogin. .
2- Stage of delivering the foetus. This stage takes about 30-50 minutes, and starts after enough dilatation of cervix. As a result of consequent uterus contractions, foetus head starts to emerge first. It is striking that the diameter of foetus head may exceed 12 cm., i.e., normally triple the diameter of vaginal canal. Having considered this fact, and the role of self hormonal factors, in addition to the expansion of pelvis ligatures and muscles, that all facilitate the delivery of the foetus, we realize the wisdom underlying Allah’s saying;
(ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ) (عبس: 20)
“Then He makes his path smooth for him.” (80: 20). So blessed be Allah, the Most Wise of all disposers.
3- Stage of placenta emergence and the formation of blood clot behind the placenta. This stage lasts about 15 minutes.
4- Stage of uterus contraction. This is to alleviate the bleeding after delivery process, and continues for about two hours.
After delivery, and cutting the umbilical cord, which the foetus has depended upon for acquiring food from his mother during pregnancy, the baby then starts another stage in a new station in his life.
The miracle of human creation in the holy Quran is one of many other medical miracles . Having reviewed previous detailed statements of Quranic verses and scientific analysis of the embryonal stages, it is evident that these Quranic verses give an accurate description of the main stages the embryo encounters during creation and formation until delivery. It is noticed that these changes coincide with the remarks of modern embryology, and truly expresses the external phenomena of changes that result from the internal changes. The Quranic descriptions contain expressions comprehensible to people of different backgrounds, whereas the current expressions in embryology used for the description of these stages do not identify the distinguished characteristics of the embryo in each stage, as numerical coding is used without reference to any description. This proves the wonderful miraculous nature of the Quran, which cannot be revealed except from the comprehensive knowledge of the Omniscient. These facts were confirmed by the embryologist Professor Keith Moore and also other non Moslem scientists.
In the age where Quran was revealed, with the description of human creation expressed in very accurate terms that fit with the modern rules of science, and with the confirmation that the creation and development of embryo are fulfilled on stages, as Allah says;
( مَّا لَكُمْ لَا تَرْجُونَ لِلَّهِ وَقَارًا .وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا )( نوح)
“What is the matter with you, that ye are not conscious of Allah’s majesty,- Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages" (71: 13-14)
Non- Moslem scientists at that time believed that man was created from menstrual blood. In so far as the 17th century, they believed that the embryo was fully created from man’s sperm, and then it grew after entering the uterus. Thus they perceived man as a seed reduced wholly in that small drop of sperm. The idea remained as such until the 18th century when microscopes proved that sperm and ovum are both necessary for pregnancy. This was discovered so many centuries after it had been revealed by the Holy Quran. This shows that the Quran is the word of a Will that knows the creation of man down to its slightest detail. This Will is Allah, the creator of man, Who says;
( وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَتَعْرِفُونَهَا) (النمل: 93)
“And say: ‘Praise be to Allah, Who will soon show you His signs, so that ye shall know them’ " (27: 93) , and Who also says;
( سنريهم آياتنا في الآفاق و في أنفسهم حتى يتبين لهم أنه الحق ) ( فصلت 53)
“Soon will We show them our signs in the furthest horizons, and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth” (41: 53). Verily says the Almighty Allah.
1- The Holy Quran.
2- The Developing Human ( Prof. Keith Moor & Prof. T. Persaud) Edition 6 – 1998
3- Clinical Anatomy . By Richard Snell ( 3ed edition) published in 1986 - Little, Brown
4- A Scientist's Interpretation of References to Embryology in the Quran (Prof. Keith Moor) Journal of the Islamic Medical Association, 1986: vol.18, Page 15-16
5- Human Development as Described in the Qur'an and Sunnah, By : Keith L. Moore ; E. Marshall Johnson ; T.V.N Persaud, ; Gerald C. Goeringer ; Abdul-Majeed Zindani, ; and Mustafa A Ahmed , 1992, ISBN 0-9627236-1-4. Collection of papers that were originally presented in the First International Conference on Scientific Signs of the Qur'an and Sunnah, held in Islamabad, Pakistan, 1987.
6- Islamic Medicine On-Line ( Dr.Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal) http://www.islamicmedicine.org
7- Video presentations of : Professor Emeritus Keith Moore, Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology and the former Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto, Canada. Prof. E. Marshall Johnson, Chairman of the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, and Director of the Daniel Baugh Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Dr. G.C. Goeringer, Course Director and Associate Professor of Medical Embryology at the Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C, USA. Dr. T.V.N. Persaud, Professor of Anatomy and Reproductive Sciences at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
* Mr. Mohammed Abdul Hamid Madi ( senior translator in the Royal Commission Medical Center - Yanbu - Saudi Arabia ) . Some of his work was published on line.
Sunday, June 15, 2008
Kitab karangan Syeikh Ahmad AL-Fathani mengenai Feqah yang ditulis dalam Bahasa Arab.
Adalah suatu penyelidikan yang keliru oleh beberapa penulis yang mengatakan Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani meninggalkan karya lebih kurang 16 buah saja. Menurut kajian penulis sendiri, barangkali boleh ditambah ‘0’ di belakangnya, bererti menjadi 160. Bahkan lebih banyak daripada yang tersebut itu.
Karya Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani terbahagi kepada tiga bentuk iaitu:
A. Tulisan dalam bahasa Arab
B. Tulisan dalam bahasa Melayu
C. Kitab-kitab yang ditashhihnya termasuk beberapa bahasa daerah disesuaikannya dengan bahasa Melayu yang berlaku menurut zamannya. Kitab-kitab yang ditashhihnya terdiri pula kepada dua bahagian iaitu dalam bahasa Arab dan dalam bahasa Melayu.
Jumlah karya Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani sebenarnya tidak diketahui kerana sebahagian besar koleksi manuskrip karya beliau atau orang lain yang dipindahkan dari Mekah ke Jambu, Patani oleh anaknya Kadi Haji Wan Ismail Al-Fathani telah musnah dalam Sungai Jambu dalam tahun 1970.
Beberapa naskhah pula diambil oleh beberapa orang yang tinggal di rumah beliau di Mekah yang kemudiannya membawa pulang ke tempat asal mereka. Manuskrip yang dapat diselamatkan hanyalah sebahagian kecil. Itu pun yang dibawa oleh Tuan Guru Haji Mahmud dari rumah Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani di Mekah ke Gajah Mati, Pendang, Kedah. Ada juga yang dibawa ke Kepulauan Riau oleh anak beliau sendiri, iaitu Hajah Wan Zainab.
Seluruh karya Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani yang telah diperolehi ataupun maklumat tentangnya yang telah diketahui akan dibicarakan dalam artikel ini. Karya yang ditulisnya dalam bahasa Arab diusahakannya sejak umurnya masih muda belia, ketika ia masih belajar di Baitulmaqdis dan Mesir.
Selanjutnya setelah pulang ke Mekah baru beliau menulis dalam bahasa Melayu. Walau bagaimanapun karyanya yang pertama yang ditulis ketika berusia 15 tahun ditulis dalam bahasa Melayu.
Berikut adalah sebahagian senarai karya-karyanya yang diketahui ditulis dalam bahasa Arab:
- Jumanatut Tauhid, tahun 1293 H/1876 M di Mesir. Disalin semula pada malam Ahad, pukul 8.12, pada 27 Ramadan 1312 H/24 Mac 1895 M. Ditemui hanya dua salinan selain yang disebut itu, sebuah salinan milik anak beliau Kadi Wan Ismail al-Fathani dan sebuah lagi milik anak saudara sepupu pengarang, iaitu Tuan Guru Haji Abdul Qadir Senawi al-Fathani.
Jumanat al-Tauhid ditulis dalam bentuk puisi terdiri daripada 184 bait. Pada halaman muka Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani menegaskan bahawa beliau bermazhab Syafie dalam fiqh, Ahli Sunnah wal Jamaah (Al-Asy’ariyah dan al-Maturidiyah) dalam akiidah, dan bertarekat dengan Tarekat Syathariyah dalam tasauf.
- Munjiatul ‘Awam li Manhajil Huda minazh Zhalam, diselesaikan penulisannya pada malam Jumaat, selepas sembahyang Isyak, 12 Rabiulawal 1293 H/7 April 1876 M di Mesir. Hanya dijumpai sebuah manuskrip salinan Tuan Guru Haji Mahmud bin Yusuf Juani, Gajah Mati, Kedah.
Risalah ini juga dalam bentuk puisi Arab, yang terdiri dari 102 bait, dua rangkap-dua rangkap. Kandungannya juga mengenai akidah tetapi beberapa perbicaraannya adalah berbeza dengan Jumanat al-Tauhid.
- Ats-Tsimarusy Syahiyah fi ma la Yastaghnal Mubtadi-una ‘anhu min Masa-ilin Nahwiyah, diselesaikan di Mesir. Tanpa dinyatakan tarikh pada manuskrip, tetapi pada manuskrip milik Abdul Lathif bin Zainal Abidin al-Fathani. Tarikh pada halaman muka dinyatakan 1294 H/1877 M.
Risalah ini yang berupa cetakan pernah dikembarkan dengan cetakan Abniyatul Asma’ wal Af’al dan Ar-Risalatul Fathaniyah. Semua cetakan dilakukan di Patani dan di Kelantan tetapi Abniyatul Asma’ wal Af’al dan Ar-Risalatul Fathaniyah dicetak di Timur Tengah dan risalah ini tidak tercantum. Risalah nahwu tersebut ditulis dalam bentuk puisi terdiri dari 99 bait.
- Syarhuts Tsimarusy Syahiyah, tidak sempat diselesaikan. Dijumpai hanya satu manuskrip asli pada 26 Jamadilawal 1425 H/14 Julai 2004 M di rumah sepupu beliau, Sheikh Wan Ibrahim bin Abdul Qadir bin Mushthafa al-Fathani.
- Manzhumatul ‘Awamil, selesai ditulis pada Jumaat, 19 Syaaban 1296 H/8 Ogos 1879 M. Hanya diperolehi sebuah manuskrip asli saja. Kitab ini mengenai ilmu nahu yang terdiri dari 69 bait. Risalah ini adalah usaha Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani merubah karya Sheikh Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani (wafat 471 H) daripada bentuk prosa kepada bentuk puisi.
-‘Unqudul La-ali, selesai ditulis pada Selasa, 23 Syaaban 1296 H/12 Ogos 1879 M. Hanya diperolehi satu manuskrip asli saja. Juga mengenai ilmu nahu digubah dalam bentuk puisi yang terdiri daripada 98 bait.
- Tas-hilu Nailil Amani, tahun 1300 H/1882 M di Mekah. Tashilu Nailil Amani atau dengan judul lain Tasrihul Ghawanil fi Syarhil ‘Awamil, selesai ditulis bertepatan dengan azan zuhur, 12 Rabiulawal 1300 H/21 Januari 1883 M. Cetakan pertama diusahakan oleh Mathba’ah al-Bahiyah, Mesir, 1301 H/1883 M manakala cetakan ketiga pula oleh Mathba’ah al-Miriyah al-Kainah, Mekah, 1317 H/1899 M.
Termasuk juga cetakan mutawal oleh Dar al-Kutub al-‘Arabiyah al-Kubra, Mesir, 1325 H/1907 M. Ada lagi cetakan pertama untuk Mathba’ah al-Khairiyah, Mesir pada 1331 H/1912 M. Sejak cetakan pertamanya pada tahun 1301 H/1883 M sehingga kini, kitab tersebut masih dicetak terus oleh pelbagai percetakan termasuk beberapa percetakan di Surabaya, Bandung, Singapura, Pulau Pinang, Patani, Bangkok, dan lain-lain.
Kitab nahwu karya Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani ini masih dijadikan bahan mengajar di beberapa tempat di dunia Islam.
- Syarh Matnis Sakhawi, diselesaikan penulisannya dalam tahun 1304 H/1886 M. Hanya diperolehi sebuah naskhah asli. Kitab ini membicarakan ilmu matematik.
- Syarh Wasilatith Thullab li Ma’rifati A’malil Laili wan Nahar, diselesaikan penulisannya dalam tahun 1305 H/1887 M. Hanya diperolehi sebuah manuskrip yang membicarakan ilmu falak.
- Sabilus Salam fi Syarhi Hidayatil ‘Awam, diselesaikan penulisannya pada Jumaat, 9 Jamadilawal 1306 H/12 Januari 1889 M di Mekah. Ditemui tiga manuskrip, sebuah yang asli, bertulis tangan, sebuah salinan Tuan Guru Haji Abdul Qadir Senawi tetapi salinan ini telah hilang di Kota Bharu, Kelantan dalam tahun 1391 H/1971 M. Terdapat sebuah lagi salinan Tuan Guru Haji Mahmud bin Yusuf Juani, tetapi tidak sempat diselesaikan penyalinannya.
Diriwayatkan bahawa kitab ini pernah dicetak di Mekah dan diajar oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani di Masjidil Haram. Kitab syarah mengenai tauhid itu adalah syarah karya gurunya Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hasbullah al-Makki. Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani mensyarahkannya atas perintah gurunya itu.
- Al-Ibrizush Shirfi fi Fannish Sharfi, diselesaikan penulisannya pada Isnin, 4 Jamadilawal 1308 H/16 Disember 1890 M. Manuskrip asli bertulis tangan Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani, ditemui dua buah dan yang sebuah lagi disalin dalam tahun 1310 H/1892 M. Terdapat pula sebuah salinan yang diusahakan oleh Abdul Hamid Tungkal dan kerja-kerja penyalinan dilakukan di Gajah Mati, Pendang, Kedah.
Kitab ini hanya sekali dicetak yang dilakukan oleh The United Press, Pulau Pinang atau usaha saudara sepupu Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani, iaitu Sheikh Ibrahim/Pak Cu Him Kedah. Kitab yang membicarakan ilmu sharaf ini mempunyai catatan yang panjang, sehingga catatannya lebih panjang daripada kandungannya sendiri.
- Ghayatul Idrak fil ‘Amal bi Kuratil Aflak, diselesaikan penulisannya pada Isnin, 7 Rejab 1313 H/24 Disember 1895 M. Terdapat dua manuskrip asli tulisan tangan Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani.
-‘Ilmush Sharf, diselesaikan penulisannya pada Isnin, 21 Syaaban 1317 H/25 Disember 1899 M. Hanya ditemui salinan yang dibuat oleh anak beliau, iaitu Kadi Haji Wan Ismail al-Fathani, yang diselesaikan penulisannya pada Jamadilawal /Jamadil Akhir 1318 H/September/Oktober 1900 M.
Pada mulanya manuskrip ini dibuang ke Sungai Jambu tetapi dapat diselamatkan oleh ahli waris Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Kejadian tersebut terjadi dalam tahun 1970. Kitab mengenai sharaf ini ditulis dalam bahasa Arab dan disertakan maksudnya dalam bahasa Melayu.
- Abniyatul Asma’ wal Af’al. Dijumpai hanya sebuah manuskrip asli. Beberapa percetakan di Patani, Kelantan dan Bangkok sentiasa menggabungkan karya beliau itu dengan Ar-Risalatul Fathaniyah. Semua cetakan tersebut terdapat taqrirat, saudara sepupu beliau, iaitu Sheikh Ismail/Pak De El bin Sheikh Abdul Qadir al-Fathani, sedangkan pada manuskrip tidak ada.
- Matnu Dhammin wa Madkhal, ditemui sebuah manuskrip yang asli dan jauh lebih lengkap daripada yang pernah diterbitkan. Manuskrip tersebut tidak menyertakan ertinya dalam bahasa Melayu sedang yang pernah diterbitkan setiap perkataan Arab disusuli ertinya dalam bahasa Melayu.
Selain itu ditemui sebuah ‘contoh’ naskhah untuk cetakan pertama yang merupakan pembacaan pruf yang disemak oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani sendiri yang dipenuhi dengan catatan-catatan pembetulan. Kitab ini pernah diterbitkan oleh Al-Ahmadiah Press, Singapura dengan meletakkan nama Muhammad Shiddiq, Sapat, Inderagiri sebagai pengarangnya dan ini menimbulkan suatu kekeliruan.
Edisi cetakan kitab ini sangat banyak, sama ada cetakan di Timur Tengah maupun di Asia Tenggara tetapi semuanya tidak mencantumkan nama Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani selaku pengarangnya.
- Ar-Risalatul Fathaniyah. Dijumpai hanya sebuah manuskrip asli. Cetakan-cetakannya sama seperti keterangan di atas. Kedua-dua risalah yang berbentuk matan itu masih diajarkan di beberapa buah pondok di Kelantan, Kedah, Patani, Bangkok dan Burma.
Terdapat dua syarah kitab ini, sebuah syarah oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani sendiri, tidak sempat diselesaikan. Sebuah lagi berjudul Ibanatul I’rabiyah fi Syarh Ar-Risalatul Fathaniyah oleh Haji Abdul Qadir Senawi.
- Syarh Matnir Risalatil Fathaniyah, tidak sempat diselesaikan. Dijumpai hanya sebuah manuskrip asli pada 26 Jamadilawal 1425 H/14 Julai 2004 M di rumah sepupu beliau, Sheikh Wan Ibrahim bin Abdul Qadir bin Mushthafa al-Fathani. Manuskrip itu dalam keadaan rosak.
- Tadrijush Shibyan, tanpa catatan tahun. Dijumpai hanya sebuah manuskrip asli. Kandungannya membicarakan ilmu balaghah. Risalah ini dulunya pernah dicetak di Makkah dan Mesir.
- Ilmu Isti’arah, dinamakan juga Matnul Bayan, tanpa catatan tarikh. Dijumpai tiga buah manuskrip asli. Dua buah dilengkapi dengan catatan yang panjang dan sebuah tanpa catatan. Selain itu dijumpai lagi tiga naskhah salinan, yang dilakukan oleh anak beliau Kadi Haji Wan Ismail al-Fathani, Haji Abdul Qadir Senawi al-Fathani dan naskhah salinan Haji Mahmud bin Yusuf Juani. Cetakan risalah ini yang dijumpai adalah cetakan pertama oleh Mathba’ah al-Miriyah al-Kainah, Makkah, dalam tahun 1325 H/1907 M yang digabungkan dengan Janiyatuts Tsmarat karya Sheikh Tengku Mahmud Zuhdi bin Abdur Rahman al-Fathani.
Judul yang diberikan pada cetakan ini ialah Risalah Tata’allaqu bi ‘Ilmil Isti’arat. Dicetak pula di bahagian tepi kitab Syarhu Tadrijis Shibyan ila Tasywiqil Bayan karya Sheikh Tengku Mahmud Zuhdi bin Abdur Rahman al-Fathani.
Dicetak oleh Mathba’ah al-Miriyah al- Kainah, Mekah, dalam tahun 1332 H/1913 M, judul yang diberikan pada cetakan ini ialah Matnul Bayan. Dicetak pula oleh Mathba’ah al-Kamaliyah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Disebut pada kulit muka, “Cetakan kali yang pertama ini dengan belanja Haji Wan Ismail anak mualif....” Dinyatakan bahawa naskhah tersebut ditashhih-kan oleh murid beliau, ialah Al-Fadhil Al-Haji Awang (Yusuf) Kenali atau maksudnya adalah Tok Kenali. Di halaman belakang naskhah tersebut dinyatakan selesai dicetak pada 19 Jamadilawal 1349 H/11 Oktober 1930 M. Pada cetakan ini digunakan judul Ar-Risalatu Tata’allaqu biha ‘Ilmul Isti’arah.
- Jadwal Mawaqi, tanpa tahun. Hanya ditemui sebuah manuskrip asli.
- Faidah Buruj Itsna ‘Asyara, tanpa catatan tahun. Hanya ditemui sebuah manuskrip asli.
- Mishbahul Ghulam, belum diketemui.
- Khawashu Asmail Husna, tanpa ada catatan tarikh. Hanya ditemui sebuah manuskrip asli.
- Manzhumatut Tauhid wal Fiqh wat Tashawul. Hanya ditemui sebuah manuskrip tetapi tidak lengkap. Ditulis dalam bentuk puisi.
- Ilmu Fiqh Islami, tanpa catatan tahun.
- Ilmu Tasauf, tanpa catatan tahun.
- Syarah Syarwani, tanpa catatan tahun. Belum pernah penulis lihat, tetapi diketahui berdasarkan cerita Ustaz Haji Abdur Rahman bin Abdul Qadir al-Fathani (di Mekah 1979). Kitab tersebut adalah antara kitab bekas koleksi Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani yang dibuang ke Sungai Jambu dalam tahun 1970. Ustaz Haji Abdur Rahman al-Fathani yang kebetulan berdiri di tepi sungai tersebut dapat menyelamatkan kitab Syarah Syarwani daripada musnah dan kini ada dalam simpanan beliau.
- Al-Fatawal Fathaniyah, tanpa ada catatan tarikh. Hanya ditemui sebuah manuskrip tetapi tidak lengkap. Al-Fatawal Fathaniyah boleh ditemui dalam dua bahasa, iaitu bahasa Arab dan bahasa Melayu. Karya yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab adalah kumpulan pertanyaan dan jawapan oleh Sheikh Ahmad al-Fathani, iaitu pertanyaan yang datang dari seluruh dunia Islam sedang pertanyaan yang dalam bahasa Melayu datang dari dunia Melayu saja.
- As-Siyasatu wat Tadbir, ditemui manuskrip yang tidak lengkap. Kitab ini penting kerana membicarakan perkara-perkara politik dan pentadbiran zaman pemerintahan Melayu dan Islam.
- Al-Lam’atun Nuraniyah wan Nafahatul Miskiyah, hanya ditemui halaman pertama saja, di Menara, Patani, pada Oktober 1992. Kandungan kitab ini ialah mengenai sejarah Nabi Muhammad SAW.
Saturday, June 7, 2008
DISOBEYING THE PARENTS IS A GRAVE MATTER
After polytheism, the gravest sin is disobedience to parents. This is an evil that a true Muslim cannot even imagine without even imagine without repulsion. Thankfulness, gentleness and gratitude are the three basic qualities that made one be a good person. One who does not cultivate these basic attitudes within him can neither fulfill his duties towards Allah nor the people: Hence Muslims who are obedient to Almighty Allah can never be disobedient or even careless to their parents.
Abu Bakr narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) asked that should he not warn them against the three major sins? All of them said, "Certainly, O Prophet!" He then said, "To ascribe partners with Allah, to disobey the parents." Getting up. As he was reclining, he said, "To tell a lie or to give false evidence." He went on repeating his words for such a long time that we wished him to be silent. (Bukhari and Muslim) In this hadeeth the word "aqooq" has been used, for the disobedience to parents. It is an Arabic words which means carelessness, cruelty, painful attitude and disobedience.
It is narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said, "Allah postpones the punishment for one's sins till the Day of Judgment if He so desires. But He award the punishment for disobeying the parents during this life, before his death."(Authentic, Al-Hakim) This means that the disobedient children will be punished twice; once in this world and secondly in the Hereafter.
In the hadeeth narrated by Thauban, the Prophet (PBUH) indicated that the following three major sins can nullify all other virtues: Ascribing partners with Allah, disobedience to parents and fleeing from Jihad.
DISOBEDIENCE TO MOTHERS
Mughairah bin Shu'bah relates that the Prophet, (PBUH) once said, "Be sure that Allah has forbidden you to disobey your mothers, to be miserly and greedy, and infanticide (burying the new born daughters alive.) And He dislikes you to be talkative and too inquisitive and to waste your belongings."
It also implies that we should take extreme care of the sentiments, habits, temperament and likes and dislikes of mothers. We should not even imagine being rude and disobedient to her. By serving and obeying our mothers we can be sure of earning the favor of Almighty Allah.
The extent of sufferings resulting from disobedience to mothers can be seen from the following hadeeth:
Once, when the Prophet(PBUH) was talking to his companions a man came and addressed him, "O Messenger of Allah ! A young man is breathing his last. (according to another source - the dying man is the Prophet's friend known as Alqamah - webmaster) People are asking him to recite Shahadah but he is unable to do so." The Prophet(PBUH) asked, "Did this man offer salah (during his life)?" The answer was yes. Then he accompanied the man to the house of the dying young man along with others present at the time. The man was at the end of his life's journey. The Messenger of Allah advised him to offer the Shahadah. The m an replied that he was unable to do so as the words would not come out of his mouth. He (PBUH) then called for the mother of the dying man whom he had disobeyed persistently. When his aged mother approached the scene, the Prophet (PBUH) asked, 'Respected lady, is he your son?" She replied yes. He then asked her a question, "O respected lady, if we threaten to throw your son into a raging fire, would you recommend him to be forgiven?" The lady replied that she would definitely do so at that time. The Prophet(PBUH) then said to her, "If so, declare, making Allah and me your witnesses, that you are mow pleased with him." The old woman readily declared, "O Allah, you and your Messenger be my witness that I am pleased with this beloved son of mine."
Just after that, the Prophet (PBUH) turned to the dying man and asked him to recite, "There is no god but Allah, He is the One and has no partners and I witness that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger." By the virtue of the forgiveness of his mother, he found the words flowing out of his mouth and he recited the Shahadah. Seeing this, the Prophet (PBUH) praised Almighty Allah and thanked Him saying, "Thanks to Almighty Allah that He saved this man from the fearful fire of Hell through me." (Tabarani and Ahmad). Acknowledging the great favor of the parents is central to our success in being right with them, as they are the cause of our existence. It will enable us to see ihsan towards the parents as a sign of a healthy, natural disposition.
1. "We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents; in pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth" (46:15).
2. "Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor. And out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: ‘My Lord! bestow on them Thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood' "(17:23-24).
3. "We have enjoined on man and woman kindness to parents; but if they (either of them) strive (to force) thee to join with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not'" (29:8).
4. "We have enjoined on man and woman (to be good) to his/her parents; show gratitude to Me and to thy parents; to Me is (thy final) Goal. If they (parents) strive to make thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration) and follow the way of those who turn to Me (in love)" (31:14-15).
1. The Prophet Muhammad said, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon him: Your Heaven lies under the feet of your mother (Ahmad, Nasai).
2. A man came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Messenger of God! Who among the people is the most worthy of my good companionship? The Prophet said: Your mother. The man said, ‘Then who?' The Prophet said: Then your mother. The man further asked, ‘Then who?' The Prophet said: Then your mother. The man asked again, ‘Then who?' The Prophet said: Then your father. (Bukhari, Muslim).
3. Abu Usaid Saidi said: We were once sitting with Rasulullah when a man from the tribe of Salmah came and said to him: O Messenger of Allah! do my parents have rights over me even after they have died? And Rasulullah said: Yes. You must pray to Allah to bless them with His Forgiveness and Mercy, fulfill the promises they made to anyone, and respect their relations and their friends (Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah).
4. Abdullah ibn Amr related that the Messenger of Allah said: The major sins are to believe that Allah has partners, to disobey one's parents, to commit murder, and to bear false witness (Bukhari, Muslim).
5. It is narrated by Asma bint Abu Bakr that during the treaty of Hudaibiyah, her mother, who was then pagan, came to see her from Makkah. Asma informed the Messenger of Allah of her arrival and also that she needed help. He said: Be good to your mother (Bukhari, Muslim).
Parent's Rights over Children
The Prophet (S.A.W.) has laid stress on the rights of parents and duties of children, in the same way as he has stressed the rights of children and the duties of parents.
To be obedient to parents and to show kindness to them has been enjoined along with the Oneness and Worship of Allah, in the Holy Qur抋n, in such a manner that it appears that among human deeds, to obey parents and treat them with respect and kindness is next only to Divine Worship.
The Quran says, in Sura Bani Israil:
"Your Lord (The Creator) has ordained that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to the parents.
Parents are the Heaven and Hell of the Children
In a hadith the Prophet (S.A.W.) has said that the parents of a person are his Heaven or Hell.
This shows that if a person obeys his parents and attends to their needs and comforts and keeps them happy, he will attain Paradise. On the other hand, if he is rude and disobedient to them and offends them by ignoring their feelings or by causing them grief in any other way, his place shall be in Hell.
Pleasing the parents causes Allah's pleasure
Anyone who seeks to please Allah should earn the good pleasure of his parents. To keep the parents well pleased is essential since their anger and displeasure will lead to Allah's anger and displeasure. The Prophet (S.A.W.) has said "in the good pleasure of the father lies the good pleasure of the Creator and in his displeasure, lies the displeasure of the Creator."
Here the mother has not been mentioned, but, according to many other Ahadith, the right of the mother with regard to service and kind treatment is even higher than that of the father. Therefore, her pleasure or displeasure will carry an equal significance.
Curse for not looking after aged parents
The time that the parents need to be looked after most carefully is in their old age, and to serve them devotedly in that state is most pleasing to Allah and it is an easy way to attain Paradise.
Abu Hurairah (R.A.) relates that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said "May he be disgraced, may he be disgraced, may he be disgraced." "Who?" The Sahaaba enquired. "The person whose parents, or any one of them, attain old-ape during his life-time and he does not earn Paradise (by being kind-hearted and dutiful to them)!"
Therefore, anyone who gets an opportunity to serve his parents in their old-age and does not avail himself to it (to attain Paradise), undoubtedly, he is a most wretched person.
Serving the parents is preferable to Jihad
When the parents of a person are in need of his help and attention, then it is preferable for him to serve them than to go to Jihad.
A person once came to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and said that he wanted to participate in the Jihad. The Prophet asked him "Are your parents alive?" "Yes, they are alive" he replied. The Prophet said. "Then strive in their service and assist them at the time of their need. (This is your Jihad.)"
Commentary: Perhaps, there was reason for the Prophet (S.A.W.) to believe that the parents of the person concerned were in need for help and attention, that is why he told him to go and take care of them, because in these circumstances service to the parents was more important.
However, it must not be misunderstood that anyone whose parents are alive should not take part in Jihad, and that only those whose parents have died. should do so. In fact, the parents of many of the Sahaaba who took part in Jihad, were living.
The mother's claim is greater
Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrates that a person asked the Prophet (S.A.W.) "Who has the greatest claim on me with regard to service and kind treatment?" The Prophet replied, "Your mother, and again your mother, and once again your mother. After her, is the claim of your father, then that of your near relations and then of the relations next to them.
This, obviously, shows that where care and kind treatment are concerned, the claim of the mother is greater than that of the father.
It appears to be the same in the Qur抋n too. In many instances, the pain and the suffering which the mother has to bear during pregnancy, at childbirth, and in the bringing-up of the children, has been mentioned along with the emphasis of expressing kindness to parents.
Paradise lies at the mother's feet
In one hadith the Prophet (S.A.W.) has clearly stated that a person's Paradise lies at his mother's feet. By serving her well and being obedient to her, one can attain Paradise.
In some other Ahadith the Prophet (S.A.W.) has explained that serving the mother, the maternal aunt and maternal grandmother, are among the acts by whose piousness, even the repentance of a great sinner and evil-doer is accepted and he is forgiven.
Treatment towards polytheist parents
If anyone's parents are polytheists, and they want him to follow their faith, he should refuse, but he should continue to be kind and respectful to them.
Asma bint Abu Bakr (R.A.) relates that her mother had come to Madina, from Makkah, to meet her. Her mother followed the Pagan customs and beliefs? so Asma (R.A.) enquired from the Prophet (S.A.W.) as how she was to treat her whether she should have nothing to do with her, as she was a Pagan, or treat her like a daughter should, and show kindness to her. The Prophet told her to be kind and considerate and to behave towards her as was a mother's due, from a daughter.
Parents' rights after their death
The rights of parents do not come to an end with their death. In fact, some of their rights take effect after their death, and it is a religious obligation for the children to fulfill them.
As explained before, obeying one's parents and treating them with respect and affection is great virtue - and atones for one's sins. Similarly, to ask Allah to have mercy on them after their death, is an act which brings comfort to them in their graves and serves to atone for one's sins.
After the death of one's parents among other duties, should be to pray for their forgiveness and treat their relatives and friends with due respect.
Abu Usaid Sa'idi (R.A.) relates that a person came to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and asked him "0 Prophet of Allah, are there some rights of my parents, on me, which I have to fulfill even after they have died?" "Yes" the Prophet replied, "These are to pray for mercy and forgiveness on their behalf, to fulfill the promises they have made to anyone, to pay due regard to the bonds of relationship from their side and to be respectful to their friends.
In the Qur抋n, Muslims have been urged to pray for the salvation of their parents as shown in the verse.
And say, "My Lord. Have mercy on both of them, as they cared for me when I was little."
Advantages of obedience to parents
The real reward for serving the parents, with great attention, is Paradise and the pleasure of Allah. But the Almighty bestows a special flavour, in this world too, on the believer who fulfils the parents' rights devotedly.
Jabir (R.A.) reports that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said "Allah prolongs the life of a person who obeys his parents and serves them devotedly."
In another hadith, the Prophet (S.A.W.) is reported to have said, "Obey your parents and treat them with kindness, your children will be kind and obedient to you.
Great sin for disobeying the parents
Just as the Prophet (S.A.W.) declared, that serving ones parents well is an act of great virtue, he condemned the showing of disobedience to them, or harming them, as a most serious and detestable sin.
When asked about the major sins, the Prophet (S.A.W.) replied." To associate anyone with Allah, to disobey the parents, to kill unlawfully and to give false evidence."
The above-mentioned acts have been condemned as 'Akbarul-Kabaair' i.e. the most serious of the major sins. The order in which the Prophet said them, shows that the disregard of parents rights is next, only, to Polytheism (Shirk) and it is even more serious than murder.
The Prophet (S.A.W.) has said "To abuse one's parents is also a major sin." He was asked "Can anyone abuse his parents?" "Yes," the Prophet replied, "if a person abused someone else's parents and that person, in retaliation, abused his parents, - then it is as though he himself had abused his parents."
We can imagine, from this, what an important place respect for parents occupies in the moral and social teachings of Islam, and how careful one should be about it.
Source: THE ISLAMIC SCHOLAR