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"O Allah! We seek goodness from Your Knowledge and with Your Power (and Might) We seek strength, and We ask from You Your Great Blessings, because You have the Power and We do not have the power. You Know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action (We are about to take) is better for my religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then make it destined for us and make it easy for us and then add blessings [baraka'] in it, for us. O Allah! In Your Knowledge if this action is bad for us, bad for our religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then turn it away from us and turn us away from it and whatever is better for us, ordain [destine] that for us and then make us satisfied with it."

DOA/PRAYERS






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The Webmaster (Pok Nik) would like to express his highest gratitude and thanks to (Almarhum) Ustaz Haji Ahmad Junaidin bin Che Din for his permission and greatest support in order to make this Global Abjad Blog as a reality.

Contact Pok Nik at : pgssajkm@gmail.com

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Importance of a good shaykh by Shaykh Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi Allahu anhu

Al Ghawth al-Adham Shaykh Sayyad Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi 'Allahu anhu said: You must work hard to ensure that your hearts are not locked out of the door of His nearness. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must seek the company of a Shaykh who is learned in the law [hukm] and knowledge ['ilm] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), and who will show you the way toward Him. Without seeing the successful [muflih], one cannot succeed. If a person does not seek the company of scholars who put their knowledge into practice ['ulama 'ummal], he is a chicken from an egg abandoned by the rooster and the mother hen.

Seek the fellowship of those who enjoy fellowship with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). What each of you should do, when the night has grown dark and people have gone to bed and their voices are silent, is get up, take an ablution [yatawadda'], perform two cycles of ritual prayer [yusalli rak'atain] and say: "O my Lord, guide me to one of Your righteous servants near to You, so that he may guide me toward You and make me familiar with Your path." The instrument [sabab] is necessary. Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) was quite capable of guiding [His servants] to Him without the Prophets [anbiya']. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must awaken from your heedless folly. As the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: If someone relies entirely on his own subjective judgement, he will go astray. Try to find someone who will be a mirror for the face of your religion [din], just as you look in the mirror to check the appearance of your outer face, your turban and your hair. Be sensible! What is this crazy foolishness? You say, "I don't need anyone to teach me," and yet the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: The believer is the believer's mirror [al-mu'minu mir'atu 'l-mu'min].

When the believer's faith is sound, he comes to be a mirror for all creatures. They behold their religious faces [wujuh adyanihim] reflected in the mirror of his speech, every time they see him and get close to him. What is this craziness? Not a moment goes by without your begging Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) to provide you with more than you already have to eat, to drink, and to wear, with more sexual opportunities and more income. These are not things that could increase or decrease, even if you were to be joined in your plea by every supplicant whose prayers are answered [da 'in mujab].

Supplication [da 'wa] will neither increase one's sustenance by so much as an atom, nor reduce it by an atom. This is a foregone conclusion [mafrugh minhu]. You must devote your attention to doing what you have been commanded to do, and to avoiding what you have been forbidden to do. You should not worry about that which is bound to come your way, because He guarantees that it will come to you. Allotted shares [aqsam] arrive at their appointed times, whether they be sweet or bitter, whether you like them or dislike them.

The people [of the Way] attain to a condition in which they no longer have any prayer of supplication [du'a] or request [su'al] to make. They do not beg [in their prayers] to gain advantages, nor to get rid of disadvantages. Their supplication comes to be a matter concerning their hearts, sometimes for their own sake and sometimes for the sake of all creatures, so they utter the prayer of supplication without conscious premeditation [fi ghaiba].
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"O '' Allah, endow us with good behaviour in Your company under all circumstances!
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[When the believer's faith is sound], fasting [sawm], prayer [salat], remembrance [dhikr] and all acts of obedience [ta 'at] become second nature to him, mingled with his flesh and blood. Then he receives protection from Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) under all circumstances. The restraint of the law [hukm] does not desert him, not for an instant, while he is on this course. The law comes to be like the vessel in which he sits, as he travels over the ocean of the power [qudra] of his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He). He goes on traveling over it until he arrives at the shore of the hereafter, at the shore of the ocean of grace and the hand of nearness. Thus he is sometimes in the company of creatures and at certain times in the company of the Creator. His work and toil are with creatures, while his relaxation is with the Creator.
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From Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, "The Sublime Revelation (Al-Fath ar-Rabbani)," translated by Muhtar Holland (Al-Baz Publishing, Houston, 1992), p. 426-8.
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On the authority of Abu Hurayrah r.a., who said that Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. said: Allah SWT said:

Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him. (It was related by al-Bukhari)
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“Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”

Monday, September 14, 2015

BERKENAAN AQAD, JUAL, BELI DSB.

Assalamualaikum Poknik,

Saya ingin mendapatkan penjelasan berkaitan akad jual beli, seperti yang saya faham, akad jual beli berlaku apabila penjual menyerahkan barang jualan kepada pembeli dengan berkata "saya jual barang ini" dan pada masa yang sama pembeli pula menyerahkan wang dengan berkata "saya beli brg ini". Ini yang biasa dipraktikkan terutamanya di kedai runcit.

Persoalan saya, adakah ini menepati kehendak hukum? Dan bagaimana pula akad jual beli dilakukan dalam perniagaan yang komplek seperti kontrak pembinaan, kontrak pembekalan barangan, dan sebagainya

Ada tak bentuk perniagaan yang halal yang yang tidak boleh dilakukan akad jual beli?

Kalau boleh Poknik tolong perjelaskan berkenaan rukun, syarat sah serta perkara lain berkaitan akad jual beli secara mudah, untuk memudahkan kefahaman saya

Terima kasih

Jawapan

Salam saudara, jawapan Pok Nik adalah bertaraf orang awam dan bukan ulama.

Sememangnya, dalam apa yang kita lakukan hari ini, kalau nak dikira dalam konteks muamalah, masih banyak yang perlu diperbaiki. Apapun, kita buat yang paling dekat, kalau nak 100% betul pada zaman ini, amatlah sukar sekali.

Dalam aqad apa yang terpenting ialah keredhaan 2 belah pihak dalam jual dan beli serta ianya bergantung atas apa jenis perniagaan yang diperkatakan di sini – samada pembekalan khidmat pembinaan sivil, Mechanical and Electrical dsb, atau pembekalan produk (sebagai supplier) atau penjualan produk secara runcit, insuran dan sebagainya.

Secara dasarnya, 3 rukun utama perlu diperhatikan – wujudnya penjual dan pembeli (atau pembekal/klien) yang waras fikiran, produk (atau perkhidmatan) yang harus atau halal diniagakan (Ma’ kud Alaih) dan ijab kabul. Selain itu, hukumnya harus dan mestilah didasarkan kepada pemuafakatan – persetujuan bersama/dua-pihak (based on mutual consent) – namun ijab dan kabul tidak semestinya memerlukan pernyataan lisan.

Sabda Rasulullah SAW : “Sesungguhnya jual beli itu sah jika suka sama suka.”

Sabda baginda lagi : “Dua orang yang melakukan jual beli boleh memilih meneruskan jual beli atau tidak jika kedua-duanya belum berpisah daripada tempat akad.”

Tetapi Pok Nik perlu utarakan satu lagi Sabda Rasulullah SAW yang mungkin ramai peniaga/usahawan tidak perasan :

“Wahai Rasulullah, seseorang datang kepadaku. Dia ingin membeli sesuatu dariku, sementara barang yang dicari tidak ada padaku.

Kemudian aku pergi ke pasar dan membeli barang itu.”

Rasulullah SAW bersabda:

“Jangan menjual sesuatu yang tidak ada padamu.” (HR. Tirmidzi)

Namun, Pok Nik ada merujuk kepada mereka yang faham tentang perkara ini. Kesimpulannya ialah, kita perlu pergi membeli dahulu barangan tersebut, pastikan kita cukup stok dsb, barulah kita menawarkan barangan tersebut dan bukan sebaliknya. Secara ringkasnya :

1. Produk tersebut mestilah dapat dihantar ketika berlaku akad jual beli
2. Masa dan lokasi penghantaran produk telah ditetapkan
3. Produk tersebut telah ditentukan jenis dan kuantitinya

Dengan kata lain, ianya juga berlaku dalam bentuk apa yang kita kenali kini sebagai Purchase Order, Delivery Order dan Agreement. (ingat, yang penting ialah pemuafakatan/keredhaan)

Masalah yang saudara utarakan ialah kemungkinan percampuran dengan unsur riba yang mungkin disembunyikan dalam istilah tertentu. Dari itu, jika kita mengharuskan amalan muamalah dengan aqad yang dinisbahkan kepada faedah – samalah seperti kita menghalalkan yang haram. Ini adalah dasarnya.

Walaupun begitu, Pok Nik bukanlah pakar dalam bidang muamalah cuma spt. Yang dinyatakan di atas, nak dapat 100% betul cara aqad – sememangnya sukar pada zaman sekarang.

Kalau kita ada syak, zhan dan waham dalam sesuatu urusan, perkara utama ialah merujuk kepada ulama yang mahir dalam bidang ini kerana mungkin was-was kita itu kerana kita kedhaifan ilmu.

Tetapi kita sebagai usahawan dan peniaga perlu pula bertanya kepada diri kita, apabila kita perlukan rangkaian perniagaan untuk menjayakan kerja-kerja yang kita jalankan, tentunya kita pasti tidak boleh lari dari mengelak membuat pinjaman atau akad jual beli (perjanjian/agreement) yang mungkin membabitkan yang terbaik bagi kita umpamanya tawarruk, Bai Bi thaman ajil, Bay-inah, murabahah dan sebagainya. Walaupun ada yang masih mempersoalkan Bay-inah kerana mungkin didasarkan kepada hadis tersebut :

Sabda Rasulullah SAW :

“Jika kamu melakukan jual beli dengan cara ‘inah, dan kamu telah memegang ekor sapi, dan kamu rela dengan bercucuk tanam, Allah akan menimpakan kehinaan kepada kalian. Allah tidak akan mengangkatnya sampai kamu kembali kepada agama kamu.” (Abu Daud)

Suka Pok Nik memetik kenyataan yang sangat popular di kalangan mereka yang memberikan penerangan dalam konteks Bay-inah - dari bahan Bank Negara Malaysia

Bai’ ‘inah concept is used in Malaysian Islamic banking system and capital market to facilitate the needs of market players when Islamic financial industry was first pioneered in the country. Even though the majority of Shariah scholars disallow this concept, some of them are of the opinion that it is acceptable as long as all the pillars and conditions of the contract are complied with. Based on this opinion, bai’ ‘inah concept is accepted to be practiced in Malaysia to ensure that Islamic finance is as competitive as its conventional counterpart. Among others, this concept is applied in money market transaction, bond issuance, debt securitization and credit card facility.

Imam Shafie menyatakan:

Bai’ ‘Inah merujuk kepada penjualan sesuatu aset, yang kemudiannya dibeli kembali dengan harga yang berbeza, yang mana penjualan secara tertangguh itu adalah lebih tinggi dari harga tunai (spot)

Dan bai’ ‘inah ini dipersetujui oleh Imam Shafie, Abu Yusuf dan juga sebahagian ulama dalam mazhab Shafie.

Kes ini boleh dilihat dalam konteks penggunaan instrumen pasaran kewangan dan kad kredit.

Apa yang dilarang oleh Rasulullah sebenarnya adalah merujuk kepada keadaan demikian :

Kita menjual barangan kepada seseorang secara bertempoh, kemudian kita beli balik barangan tersebut dengan harga yang lebih murah (dari pembeli) – akhirnya kita meminta pembeli membayar penuh sebagaimana asal harga jualan.

Sepanjang pengetahuan Pok Nik yang masih belajar dalam bidang muamalah ini - mungkin ada silap - kita sebagai penjual tidak boleh membeli kembali barangan tersebut pada harga yang lebih murah dan akhirnya meminta bayaran penuh sebagaimana asal jualan (ini ada unsur spekulasi sebenarnya - jelas ada unsur penipuan dan riba) sebaliknya kita mesti memberikan peluang kepada pembeli untuk menjualnya kepada orang lain.

Pok Nik tidak mahu menyentuh contohnya dengan harapan saudara dan pembaca carilah sendiri contoh perniagaan inah yang diharamkan (jelas terdapat unsur riba) tetapi masih berlaku dalam institusi perbankan dan kewangan (terutamanya money market) - no comments :-)

Selain itu, jual beli cara najasy juga dilarang oleh Rasulullah SAW. (najasy ada kaitan dengan inah di atas - bergantung atas apa jenis perniagaan yang kita bincangkan) contohnya dalam transaksi perniagaan - ada tawaran ke atas produk pada harga tertentu tetapi ada seseorang menaikkan harga tawarannya - walhal dia tidak berminat untuk membeli tetapi ingin menarik perhatian/memancing pengunjung lainnya dengan niat menipu para pembeli (juga berkaitan dengan spekulasi saham dsb)

Sepatutnya biarlah pembeli yang tawar menawar dengan penjual. Najasy juga berlaku dalam keadaan berikut :

Penjual menyatakan "tolonglah saya, saya beli harga (atau harga modal) produk ini dengan harga 'x' jadi saya 'untung' dengan menjual harga 'x' " walhal dia berbohong kerana mahukan pembeli membelinya dengan harga tinggi.

Akhirnya ada satu lagi aqad yang diharamkan iaitu 'aqad atas aqad' maksudnya jual beli di atas akad saudaranya.

Sabda Rasulullah SAW :

“Janganlah sebahagian di antara kamu berjualan di atas jualan sebahagian.”

Contohnya, seseorang mencari satu produk dan dia membelinya dari seorang penjual. Kemudian dalam tempoh 2-3 hari atau lebih, penjual memberikan hak memilih kepada pembeli samada jadi ataupun tidak. Dalam tempoh ini, tidak boleh ada penjual lain yang masuk (undercut  atau potong trip kata orang Melayu) dan menyatakan kepada si pembeli tadi “tak payahlah awak beli barang ini, kerana saya membeli produk yang lebih baik dan harga lebih murah" - perkara ini adalah haram. Melainkan memang si pembeli tidak jadi membeli, maka bolehlah kita menawarkan kepadanya pula.

Ataupun jika pembeli belum membuat sebarang keputusan dalam tempoh yang ditetapkan, tiba-tiba kita berminat untuk membeli barangan tersebut, dan kita berjumpa penjual dan menyatakan bahawa kita akan membeli barangan tersebut dengan harga yang lebih tinggi. Ini juga diharamkan.

Dan dua keadaan di atas banyak berlaku di kalangan usahawan dan peniaga Muslim hari ini - MasyaAllah...sanggup kita menipu sahabat dan saudara kita sendiri - 'tikam belakang' - renung-renungkanlah dan rujuklah pada ulama yang lebih mahir untuk pengesahan.

Wallahu'alam bisawwab