To apply kuhl (surmah, antimony, collyrium) in the eyes is mustahab. One should use kuhl with the intention of ajr (thawwaab, reward). It benefits the eye and one receives ajr for following the Sunnah also.
Hadith Number 1
Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhu) says: "Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: 'Use kuhl made of ithmid on the eye; it brightens eyesight and strengthens and increases the growth of the eye lashes.' (Sayyidina Ibn 'Abbas, radiyallahu anhu, also used to say) 'Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, had a small container for keeping kuhl from which he applied kuhl in each eye three times every night.' "
Ithmid is a special type of kuhl which is reddish black in coulor. It is obtained in the Easter countries. Some of the learned say it is the Isfahaani kuhl, and others say it is the Totiya. Some 'ulama say, it means those who have good eyesight and it should be used by those with whose eyesight it agrees, otherwise a sick person's eyes will pain more by use. It is more beneficial to apply kuhl at the time of sleeping as it will remain longer in the eyes, and will penetrate more into the pores. There are different narrations on the number of times it should be applied in each eye. In a few it is stated that it should be applied triee times in each eye, as mentioned above. In other narrations it is stated that it should be put three times in the right eye and two times in the left eye. It is supposed that the variations are because of the different times of the narrations. At a certain time, Sayyidina Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) applied it in one manner and at another time in the other manner. Haafiz Ibn Hajar, Mullah 'Ali Qaari and other 'ulama have preferred the first methode (as given in the hadith under discussion). The first method has been narrated many times from Sayyidina Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), as will be seen in the narrations that follow.
Hadith Number 2
Ibn Abbas, radhiyallahu anhu reports: "Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) applied kuhl of ithmid three times in each eye before sleeping." In a narration also from Ibn 'Abbas, radhiyallahu 'anhu, it is reported: "Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had a small container for keeping kuhl, from which he applied in each eye kuhl three times before sleeping."
Hadith Number 3
Jaabir bin 'Abdullah, radhiyallahu 'anhu, says: "Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: 'Use the kuhl mad from ithmid for the eyes. It brightens the vision and strengthens the growth of the eye lashes.' "
Hadith Number 4
Ibn 'Abbas, radhiyallahu 'anhu, says: "Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) has said: 'The best from among all the kuhl used by you is the one made from ithmid. It brightens the eyesight and strengthens the growth of the eye lashes.' "
One of the narrators in the chain of this Hadith is Bishr bin Mufaddal, radhiyallahu 'anhu. The 'ulama wrote that he performed four hundred rak'ahs nafl daily, and it was his permanent practice to fast every alternate day.
Hadith Number 5
'Abdullah bin 'Umar, Radhiyallahu 'anhu, related the same Hadith from Rasulullah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) that: "Verily use the kuhl made from ithmid. It brightens the vision and strengthens the growth of the eyelashes."
In all the above narrations the use of kuhl made from ithmid has been stressed. Only those eyes are meant, that agree with the use of it, otherwise, because of certain eye conditions kuhl does not agree with some people, as was mentioned previously. The 'ulama have written that due to these commands and practices it is Sunnah to use kuhl, and it is better to use the one made from ithmid. If one uses kuhl made from any other substance it will be regarded as Sunnah, but the virtue is obtained by using kuhl mad of ithmid.
The Turban of Sayyidina Rasulullah
The length of the turban of Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, has not been given in the well known ahaadith. In a narration from Tabraani seven dhi-raa have been mentioned. Bayjiri has related from Ibn Hajar that this hadith has no origin. Allaamah Jazari says:�"I studied the books on seerah (the history of Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), but I found no mention of any length."� It is related from Imam Nawawi that Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, had two (2)�turbans, one was a small one, the length of which was dhi-raa (cubits) according to Munaawi, and seven dhi-raa according to Mulla 'ali Qaari. The long one was twelve dhi-raa. The author of Madkhal mentions that the length of the turban of Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was seven dhi-raa; he did not mention any other size. It was a continuous sunnah to wear the turban. It has been related that Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, ordered the wearing of the Turban. He said:�"Wear amaamah (turban) regularly, for it increases ones hilm (gentleness)." [Fathlu Baari] Someone enquired from 'Abdullah bin 'Umar, radhiyallahu 'anhu:�"Is it Sunnah to wear an 'amaamah (turban)?" He replied:�"Yes, it is a Sunnah."�[Ainy] In one Hadith it is stated that a turban should be worn regularly for it is a sign of Islam, and it distinguished between a Muslim and a kafir. [Ainy] Five (5) ahaadith have been mentioned on this topic.
Hadith Number 1
Jaabir, radhiyallahu anhu reports that when Makkah was conquered, Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, entered the city wearing a black turban.
This Hadith seems to contradict the previous ahaadith, wherein it is stated that Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, wore a helmet and entered Makkah. In reality there is no difference. It is not impossible to wear a turban on a helmet. Both hadith can be summed up easily. Some 'ulama say that when he entered Makkah he wore a helmet. As soon as he removed the helmet, he wore a turban. Since the time was appropriate, that is why in that narration the time of entry is mentioned. Some 'Ulama are of the opinion that because a metal head cover may have been troublesome, he may have worn a turban beneath it.
Hadith Number 2
'Amr bin Hurayth, radhiyallahu 'anhu says:�"I�had seen Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, wear a black turban."
In Sahih Muslim and Nasa'i, Sayyidina 'Amr bin Hurayth Radhiyallahu 'anhu says: "That scene is still before my eyes, when Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was reciting the khutbah on the mimbar. He wore a black turban on his mubaarak head, and its shamlah (the end portion of the turban) was between his shoulders."
Hadith Number 3
'Amr bin Hurayth, radhiyallahu anhu, relates that Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was once reciting the khutbah, and there was a black turban on his mubaarak head.
According to well known sayings, this khutbah was at the time when Makkah Mukarramah was conquered. It was given from the threshold of the Ka'bah's door, as has been mentioned in the previous ahaadith by Sayyidina Jaabir Radhiyallahu 'Anhu. Because in some ahaadith relating to this incident, it has been mentioned that the khutbah was delivered from a mimbar (pulpit), whereas the khutbah at the time when Makkah Mukarramah was conquered was not given from a mimbar. Some say this this incident did not take place in Makkah Mukarramah, but at Madina Munawwarah on a Friday. In some ahaadith it is also mentioned that this was a Friday khutbah. Mullah 'Ali Qaari has written on the commentary of Mishkaat from Meerak Shah that this khutbah was delivered before Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, passed away. And Allah knows best.
Hadith Number 4
Ibn 'Umar, radhiyallahu anhu, reports:�"When Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, fastened an 'amaamah (turban), he used to put the shamlah between his shoulders. (i.e. he used to put it on the back)." Nafi' says:�"I�had seen 'Abdullah bin Umar, radhiyallahu anhu, do it in the same manner."�'Ubaydullah, who is the student of Nafi', says:�"in my time the grandson of Abu Bakr, radhiyallahu anhu, Qaasim bin Muhammad and the grandson of 'Umar, radhiyallahu anhu, Saalim bin 'Abdullah did the same."
The practice of Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, in putting the shamlah (back-end portion of the turban) varied. He usually left a shamlah on the turban. Some 'ulama have gone so far as to say that he never wore a turban without a shamlah. The muhaqqiqeen (research scholars) say he sometimes did not leave a shamlah. When wearing a turban he observed different practices with the shamlah. He sometimes left on the right front shoulder; sometimes on the back between the shoulders. Sometimes the two ends of the turban were left as a shamlah. Allaamah Munaawi says:�"Although all methods are mentioned, the best and most correct is to leave it between the shoulders on the back."
Hadith Number 5
Ibn 'Abbas Radhiyallahu anhu reports:�"Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was once reciting the khutbah. He was wearing a black turban, or an oily strip of cloth."
This was before Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam passed away. It was his last sermon. After this Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, did not ascend the mimbar, nor recite a khutbah. In this khutbah Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam especially stressed the priviliges of and consideration for the Ansaar. He counted their virtues and kind favours, and also requested that the one that was chosen as an amir should give special attention to the needs of the Ansaar. At that time Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam had a severe headache, for which reason he might have fastened a strip of cloth. Also since the hair of Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, used to be oiled regularly, the strip may have been oily for this reason. His habit of wearing a black turban is well know. The ulama have two means of a black turban. Some have translated it as a black colored turban, and some say it is an oily strip of cloth. Both are correct as it can have both meanings. One narrator of this hadith is Ibnul Ghaseel, who is from the children of Sayyidina Hanzala, radhiyallahu anhu, who was bathed by the malaa'ika (angels). Sayyidina Hanzalah, radhiyallahu anhu, was nicknamed "Ghaseelul-Malaa'ikah," which means the one bathed by the angels. There is a thought provoking incident regarding this. When the call for the Battle of Uhud was announced, and the army was beginning to leave, he was having relations with his wife. In this state he heard the call for war, and heard the army leaving for the battlefield. He left everything at that moment and joined the army. He did not have a chance to do ghusl (bath). He was martyred in the battlefield. Because a shaheed (martyr) is not given a ghusl, he too was not given a bath. Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, saw the malaa'ika bathing him. He made inquiries, and, on returning to Madinah Munawwarah, he was informed by his wife of his condition. Truly, these people gave their lives for the sake of the deen, as willingly as we would today fulfil our passions, and in which we are so heavily engrossed.
The Sword of Sayyidina Rasulullah
The 'ulama have stated that the reason for writing this section after the section of the ring is because of a special system, which also points towards a governmental rule. First letters inviting kings to Islam are to be sent. If they accept Islam they will benefit in this world and the Hereafter, otherwise they should decide between themselves and the sword. Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam had several swords, each of which had a special name. For example, the first sword was named "Ma-thur,"�which was inherited from his father. The name of another sword was "Qadib;" one was "Qil'ee;" one was "Tabaar,"�and one was "Dhulfiqaar,"�etc. Three Hadith were quoted in this article.
Hadith Number 1
Anas Rahiyallahu 'Anhu reports that the handle of the sword of Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was made of silver.
Allaamah Bayjuri writes this about the sword named "Dhulfiqaar."�At the time of conquering Makkah, Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, had this sword.
Hadith Number 2
Sa'eed bin Abi Hasan Bari, radhiyallahu 'anhu has related the same hadith that the handle grip of the sword of Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was made of silver.
Hadith Number 3
Ibn Seereen says:�"I made my sword like the sword of Samurah bin Jundub, radhiyallahu anhu."�He said that he had his sword made in the same manner as the one Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam had. The sword was the type used by the tribe of Banu Hanifah
Banu Hanifah was a tribe in Arabia who were famous for manufacturing good quality swords. These people, one after another, in imitating Sayyidina Rasulullah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, made a replica of his sword.
The Excellent of Reciting Darood Sharif and Salaam upon Rasulullah.
Tradition of The Nabi with Regard To use of Antimony/Collyrium in the eyes.
Maintaining of Locks/Tresses is the Tradition of The Holy Prophet
FORTY TRADITIONAL PRACTICES OF THE HOLY PROPHET
Some of the miracles and fulfillments of the prayers of Sayyidina Rasulullah
From Rawza Tas-Safa - by El-Shaykh Syed Mubarak Ali Al-Jilani Al-Hashmi
Muhammad E. Esahaq has a tradition that after Abu-l-a'ass bin Rabyi' bin Abdul-Uzza bin Shams, who was the son of the sister of Khadijah, the daughter of Khowlayd, had married her daughter Zaynab, whom she begat with Rasulullah, and also after Raqyah, the step-sister of Zaynab, had been married to O'tbah bin Abu Lahab, a feud had broken out between the Quraysh and Rasulullah, in consequence whereof the flames of envy and rancor had commenced to blaze in the furnaces of their minds. Wishing to distress and to insult that prince, some of the Quraysh said to Abu-l-a'ass and to O'tbah "Both of you have wedded daughters of Muhammad, and have thereby relieved him of the trouble to take care of them. Now you must divorce his daughters in order to cause him grief and unhappiness; and we shall give you instead of them any of the daughters of the Quraysh chieftains whom you may select." Abu-l-a'ass replied, "I swear by Allah that I shall never separate from my wife, nor prefer any other woman to her." O'tbah the licentious -curses be on him- however, said, "If you try to procure for me the daughter of Sa'yd Abu-l-a'ass I shall divorce the daughter of Muhammad." Accordingly the Quraysh married the daughter of Sa'yd to O'tbah, although at that time he had not yet had any true connection with Raqyah. U'rwah bin Azzobayr says: "O'tbah came to Rasulullah, and spoke the following words: 'This son-in-law [of yours] does not believe in the crazy star which has come down, and does not acknowledge that Jabrail is visiting you.' Then he squirted the saliva of his impure mouth towards our Master (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), divorced Raqyah, uttered a few more unbecoming words, and departed." It is related that on the occasion when O'tbah -curses on him- perpetrated the above act, Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) pronounced the following invocation: "Ya Allah, appoint over him one of Thy dogs." Abu Taleb, who was present with Rasulullah, said to O'tbah, "O my nephew, what stratagem can save you from the sequel of this prayer?" According to another tradition, Abu Taleb, being grieved at his Master's wish, said to the Nabi, "Son of my brother, what will you gain by this evil wish?" In short, O'tbah returned to his house and communicated to his father, Abu Lahab, what had taken place; but the latter was, despite his idolatry and obstinacy, convinced that the wish of Rasulullah, the best of the servants of Allah, would be responded to and was grieved. Some time afterwards, Abu Lahab and O'tbah departed with a company of the Quraysh to Syria for the purpose of trading. During their journey, however, they halted in a station where a monk informed them that many wild beasts were on the road, and advised them to be very careful. On that occasion Abu Lahab turned to his companions, and said, "Be prepared for a contest and aid each other, for I am not sure where the imprecation of Muhammad will not be responded to." Afterwards they heaped together all their baggage, and the couch of O'tbah happened to be on the top of it. When the night set in, O'tbah reclined on his couch, and the whole caravan reposed around the property of O'tbah. In the middle of the night, however, a roaring lion attacked the people of the caravan, all of whom were sleeping near their baggage; he snuffed at every person, but injured no one until he mounted the heap of the merchandise where O'tbah slept, and sent that impudent wretch to Hell by ripping up his abdomen, thus making him a loser in this and in the next world.
There is a tradition that a woman had a son, who was so sick that he had not a single hair on his head; therefore she took the little boy to Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), and requested him to pray to Allah that he might recover his health. His lordship complied with the request of the poor woman, placed his hands on the head of the little boy and uttered a prayer, whereon the hair immediately sprouted on his head and he was cured of his disease. At the time when Moseylamah the liar claimed to be a prophet, a woman brought her sick boy to him, and requested him to pray for his recovery. Moseylamah placed his hands on the head of the child, but by the touch of his unhallowed hand the little boy lost every hair of his head.
There is a tradition that once some persons came to Rasulullah , complained that their water was brackish, and said "The sweet water is distant from us." Accordingly Rasulullah rose, and went with a number of companions to the well, into which he threw some saliva from his blessed mouth, whereon the water immediately became sweet became sweet. The well is celebrated to this day, and was inherited by the members of that tribe from generation to generation, the people still boasting of the miracle worked in their favor. When the people of Moseylamah the liar had heard of this miracle, they requested him to work a similar one in their favor, but as soon as Moseylamah had thrown the saliva from his accursed mouth into their well the water became brackish, and had the taste of the urine of an ass.
In some books it is recorded that several persons came to his lordship the refuge of apostleship, to complain of the paucity of water in their well. Accordingly his lordship spat into it, and the water rose as high as they wished. During the time of Moseylamah, some of his people who had heard of this miracle made the same request to him, and said, "Muhammad has done such a thing, and we beseech you in the same manner to spit into our well, for the increase of water thereof." Moseylamah complied with their petition, and when he squirted the water of his impure mouth into the well, the little water which was in it disappeared altogether, and the well became so dry that not a drop remained therein.
There is a tradition of 'Ali the Commander of the Faithful, of Ibn Abbas, of Ibn Mas'ud, and of other noble companions -may Allah reward them all- that once the Quraysh idolaters assembled around Rasulullah, as said, "If your claim to prophecy be true, then divide the moon in half." His lordship the refuge of termination said, "Will you believe if I do it?" They said "Yes." Then he pointed his finger at the moon, and it was immediately divided into two parts, one of which remained in its place and the other was concealed behind a mountain. His holy prophetic lordship (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) then exclaimed, "Ya such and such a one, and such and such a one, be ye witness." According to another tradition the moon was divided in such a manner that Mount Hira intervened between the two halves. Some idolaters then said, "Muhammad has bewitched you," and others exclaimed "What we have seen cannot possibly have been perceived by all the people; we must therefore ask travelers, and if they also have witnessed this strange phenomenon, you may be sure that Muhammad is a true Prophet, but if not, not." Accordingly when strangers and travelers arrived from various regions in Makkah, the unbelievers and hypocrites examined them, and received the information that on a certain night the moon appeared divided into two halves.
It is related that an Arab who was a huntsman had caught a land-crocodile, which he was carrying to his house as food for his family and children. While he was on the way, he suddenly perceived a large gathering of people and asked for the cause of it. The people replied "Muhammad, the son of 'Abdullah (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) is here and claims to be a prophet." The Arab forcibly entered the crowd, went up to Muhammad, and said "Ya Muhammad, I shall not believe you until this crocodile believes," and threw the land-crocodile at Rasulullah's feet; but it wanted to run away; therefore his holy and prophetic lordship (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) exclaimed "Lizard, approach." The animal obeyed, replying in eloquent and distinct language "I await your commands with pleasure." His lordship asked "Whom worshippest thou?" The animal replied "I worship Allah, whose throne is in heaven whose dominion is on earth, whose power is in the sea, whose mercy is in paradise, and whose punishment is in hell." Rasulullah asked, "Who am I?" The animal said, "You are the Rasul of the Lord of both worlds and the seal of Prophets; blessings be on you! Whoever believes you will be saved, and whoever accuses you of falsehood will be damned." When the huntsman heard these words of the crocodile he took the finger of astonishment between the teeth of meditation, and said "After this I wish for no other proof of your veracity. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that you are His servant and his Rasul. This profession I now make externally and internally. I swear by Allah that when I first approached you, there was no man on the face of the earth whom I hated more than you' now, however, I love you more than my own eyes, ears, father, mother, and children. His holy and prophetic lordship (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) replied, "Thanks and praises be to Allah, who has shown you the right way."
There is a tradition attributed to Imam Hasan (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala 'anhu) to the effect that one day a man said to his holy and prophetic lordship, "I had a little daughter whom I threw some time ago into such and such a river -it being customary to with the Arabs during the time of ignorance to destroy their own daughters- and I requested his lordship to utter a prayer that my daughter might be resuscitated. The Rasul complied, went to the bank of the river, hailed the little girl by her name, and exclaimed, "Return to life by the power of Allah The Most High!" The Holy Nabi (Sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) then said, "You father and mother have become Muslims; are you willing to be restored to them?" The girl replied, "I have need neither of father nor mother, because I have found my Allah to be nearer to me than they."
It is related, after Nu'man bin Bashyr al-Ansari, that one of the professors of Islam had died at Madinah, that his body had been dressed and laid out in state, and that when the women assembled around him he uttered the following words in eloquent and distinct language, "Muhammad the Rasul of Allah is the Ummiy Prophet. This was written down in the book." Then he mentioned the names of some of the companions, and said, "Greeting to you Ya Rasulullah! May the blessing and Mercy of Allah be upon you!" After uttering these words he relapsed into his former state and expired.
Uthman bin Haniyf relates that a blind man requested Rasulullah to pray that his sight might be restored, and his lordship said, "Go, perform your religious ablution; pray two rakats, and then utter the following invocation, "Ya Allah Most High, I desire to make Your Rasul, who is the Prophet of Rahmah, my intercessor with Thee, that the veil of cecity may be uplifted from before my eyes. Ya Allah, accept the intercession of Muhammad for me." The narrator states that the blind man obeyed the injunction, and his wish was fulfilled.
There is a tradition of Qotadah bin Nu'man that he said, "I prayed one night the dormitory prayers with his lordship, and although it was raining a little, and the night was very dark, I wished to return home. His lordship put a stick made of date-tree-wood into my hand, saying, "Go with this because from this stick ten lights will be kindled in your front, and ten in your rear. When you enter your house, you will see something black; strike it till it goes our; for it is Satan." " Qotadah says, "When I entered my house, I perceived a man, whom I struck, as his lordship had commanded me, till he went out."
The Attributes and Manners of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
From Ar-Raheeq Al-Mukhtum (The Sealed Nectar) by Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri.
The Holy Nabi, Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam combined both perfection of creation and perfection of manners.
This impression on people can be deduced by the bliss that overwhelmed their hearts and filled them with dignity. Men's dignity, devotion and estimation of the Holy Last Messenger of Allah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam were unique and matchless. No other man in the whole world has been so honoured and beloved. Those who knew him well, were fascinated and enchanted by him.
Beauty and Creation
Describing the Messenger of Allah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam, who passed by her tent on his journey of migration, Umm Ma'bad Al-Khuzaiyah said to her husband:
"He was innocently bright and had a broad countenance. His manners were fine. Neither was his belly bulging out, nor was his head deprived of hair. He had black attractive eyes finely arched by continuous eyebrows. His hair glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was extremely commanding. His head was large, well-formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime".
"The stranger was fascinated from a distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him than his fascination was changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were a string of pearls. His stature was neither too high nor too small to look repulsive. He was a twig amongst the two, singularly bright and fresh".
"He was always surrounded by his Companions. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued any command, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander. His utterance were marked by truth and sincerity, free from all kinds of falsehood and lies". [Zad Al-Ma'ad]
The Perfection of Soul and Nobility
The Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was noted for superb eloquence and fluency in Arabic. He was remarkable in position and rank. He was an accurate, unpretending, straightforward speaker. He was well-versed in Arabic and quite familiar with the dialects and accents of every tribe. He spoke with his entertainers using their own accents and dialects. He mastered and was quite eloquent at both bedouin and town speech. So he had the strength and eloquence of bedouin language as well as the clarity and the decorated splendid speech of town. Above all, there was the assistance of Allah embodied in the revealed verses of the Holy Qur'an.
His stamina and endurance and forgiveness - from a commanding position his patience and standing what he detested - these were all talents, attributes and qualities Allah Almighty Himself had brought him on. Even wise men have their flaws, but the Holy Last Messenger of Allah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam unlike everybody the more he was hurt or injured, the more clement and patient he became. The more insolence an ignorant anybody exercised against him, the more enduring he became.
DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD SALLALLAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM IN THE TAURAT AND INJEEL
Allah Almighty says in the Holy Qur'aan:
"Those who will serve the Messenger, unlettered the Communicator of hidden news when they will find with them written in the Taurat and Injeel. He will bid them to do good and will forbid them from doing evil, and will make lawful for them clean things and will forbid for them unclean things, and will take off from them that burden and shackles which were upon them. Then those who believe in him and honour him and help him and follow that light which has been sent down with him, they are the persons who attained their objects." [Surah 7: Ayat 157]
In the above mentioned verse Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala says that those who wish for success in this world and in the next, should follow `the Rasool', `the Nabi' and `Ummi', three qualities or titles of the beloved Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam which are also mentioned in the Taurat and Injeel (bible). The meaning of `Rasool' is `messenger' and `Nabi' is `one who gives information of the unseen'. The meanings of these two words are well known, however, the word `Ummi' requires some discussion. In an authentic book of Tafseer (interpretation of the verses of the Holy Qur'aan), `Tafseer Ruhul Ma'ani', it is stated that one reason for `Ummi' being a title of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam is because one of the names of Makkah is "Ummul Kurah". Because he was born and lived in Makkah for so many years and because of his connection with the city and he was given the title of "Ummi" just as someone from Madina would be known as Madani or someone from Iraq would be known as Iraqi.
Another meaning given in the same book is `one who has never learnt to read or write' under the guidance of a teacher. It would be that his condition would be as if his mother had just given birth to him. Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam was not taught by any human, angel or jinn, but by the Almighty, thus his knowledge is like an ocean and his teachings will always be pertinent, even till the Day of Judgement.
The knowledge of Hazrat Adam Alaihis Salaam was also very wide and for this reason the angels were ordered to bow before him.
As we are all aware, there are many languages in the world. Each one would have its own word to describe a particular thing. For example, in English we say water, in Arabic `maa', in Urdu `paani' and in Persian `aab'. In this manner the names of everything and the purpose of their creation were taught to Adam Alaihis Salaam. The great Ulama of Islam are of the opinion that the knowledge of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam is like an ocean and the knowledge of the other Prophets (On them be peace) is like a drop of that ocean. Thus the knowledge of Adam Alaihis Salaam is like that of a drop in comparison to that of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
To say that an ordinary person is "Ummi" would signify a default in his personality. To understand this point consider this: Pride is considered to be a bad quality in character, but when we say that Almighty Allah has pride it is His praise, likewise the word "Ummi" when used for the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam signifies his praise since without being educated by any worldly teacher he possesses knowledge about all creation.
In the words "Those who find written about him in the Tauraat and Injeel" indicates to us that the personality of Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam was discussed in the original, unchanged scriptures of the Jews and Christians.
Imaam Jalaludeen Suyuti Rahmatullahi Ta'ala Alaihi narrates that the grandson of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Salaam Radiyallahu Anhuma (Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Salaam Radiyallahu Anhu was a very learned Jewish scholar of that time) says:
"I asked my grandfather about the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam and he explained that when he became aware of the presence of Nabi Alaihis Salaam in Makkah he left his homeland to go there and when he met the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam he was asked, `Are you Ibn Salaam? Are you the great scholar of the Jews?' He replied in the affirmative and the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam asked him, taking the oath of Allah to answer the question truthfully, `Have you found my qualities described in the Book of Allah (Tauraat)?' Ibn Salaam replied, `I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah, and Allah will make you and your religion prevalent over the whole world. I have found your qualities in the Tauraat." The following verse was then read, `Oh giver of the unseen news, undoubtedly we have sent you as a witness, and a giver of glad-tidings, and a warner. You are my servant and Messenger, I have named you Mutawakil (one who has complete trust in Allah)....." [Al-Khasaaisul Kubra, Vol 1]
Imaam Jalaludeen Suyuti Rahmatullahi Ta'ala Alaihi narrates that the uncle of our beloved Nabi Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam, Hazrat Abbas Radiyallahu Anhu once enquired from Kaabul Akhbaar a great Jewish scholar of his time why he accepted Islam during the time of Hazrat Umar Radiyallahu Anhu instead of in the time of Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam or the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique Radiyallahu Anhu. He replied, "My father wrote something for me from the Tauraat, he closed it and thereafter he gave it to me, and said, `Act upon this and follow it.' My father made me promise to do as he said and not to open it until a difficult time comes. Time passed and Islam spread far and wide, and I found nothing but good in the religion and at that point I opened the letter and therein I found a description of the Holy Prophet Alaihis Salaam and his Ummah. Therefore I have come now and accepted Islam."
Another Sahabi asked Ka'abul Akhbaar, "Have you found anything about our beloved Rasool (Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam) in the Tauraat?" He said, "I have found written, `Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, his birth will be in Makkah and thereafter he will travel to Madina."
In a Hadith narrated by Hazrat Abu Hurairah Radiyallahu Anhu, our Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam said,
"When Allah revealed the Tauraat to Moosa (Alaihis Salaam) and when he received the verses regarding this Ummah he prayed, `Oh Allah, I have found in the Tauraat that there will be an Ummah that will come last but yet their positon will be the best and intercession regarding them will be accepted, Oh Allah make them my Ummah.' Allah replied, `This is the Ummah of Muhammmad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam).' Thereafter Moosa (Alaihis Salaam) said, `Their holy scripture will be stored in their hearts and they will recite it from there, Oh Allah make them my Ummah.' Allah replied that, `This is the Ummah of Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam).'Then Moosa (Alaihis Salaam) asked, `That Ummah that has knowledge of the past as well as future, Oh Allah, make them my Ummah.' Again Allah replied,`That is the Ummah of Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)."
From this, it is clear that the previous Ummahs were informed about the coming of our Beloved Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam. How fortunate are we not that the status of this Ummah has also been described in the previous scriptures by virtue of being the followers of the Beloved of Allah, Sayyidina wa Mawlana Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam.
THE IDEAL PERSONALITY
The greatness of a man does not consist in the working of miracles or the doing of wonders; neither does it lie in the preaching of sermons or the formulating of theories, it lies in the possession of a mighty personality. Personality is one of the indescribable wonders of the world. It conciliates opposition and inspires respect and imitation, which results eventually in implicit obedience. It changes ideas and revolutionizes the thoughts, beliefs and actions of generations of the races of mankind. The Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was such a personality. There have been other personalities in the world. We may clothe them with attributes they never possess, we may attribute to them virtues and ethics they never owned or taught. We may crucify saviours or transfer them from the human to the divine, but all this is an after thought to magnify a unit of humanity.
Our test, therefore, as to a person believed to possess personality, must be in the changes and influence wrought by this man. And if this test is right - Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam is a unique character, seeing that no other reformer, Prophet, nor even any God-incarnate, could have and lay claim to that love, devotion and obedience that came to Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam from his followers, who were not of low station, or of inferior mental calibre, but men of position, rank, wealth and culture.
For twelve years the early Muslims suffered frightful persecution at the hands of idolaters, and yet their number steadily increased. Though its numbers were subjected to the most cruel tortures, there were few apostates, and many converts to the faith of Allah. It was the personality of the Prophet - the most charming that the world has ever known - that made Islam grow in the nascent period of its' birth.
THE IDEAL PERSONALITY
In Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam we have the ideal personality, who in his own lifetime moulds the character of his fellowmen, reforms them, changes their thoughts, puts new ideas before them, elevates them to a higher plane, and, in spite of themselves, drive them onwards and upwards on the path of progress, to the fullness of a better and holier life.
In the furnace of trial and persecution the ore of character becomes burnished gold. Adversity and hardship bring out what lies in man, they either make of him an everlasting character, the light of which shall shine always and everywhere, or reduce him to nothingness and oblivion. Therefore those who aspire after greatness and success must be prepared to tread the path of sacrifice and the Prophet Muhammed Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam distinguished himself in all the attributes that makes him the Greatest Ideal Personality.
Our Guide By : Dr Fazlur Rahman Ansari
After fourteen centuries, the world of Islam stands today exactly where the Arabs stood before the Holy Prohet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam united them into a single nation. The political conditions of the world in those days were more similar to what we are seeing today.
In those days, there were two dominating political powers, viz.the Byzantine and the Persian. The world today is dominated by two world powers, America and Russia (to a lesser extent). China stood in those days exactly as it stands today- a power by itself.
The Arabs were then divided into many tribes, each tribe constituting a separate political unit. They were engaged in ceaseless wars against each other, killing, robbing and enslaving one another. Because of their disunity, they constituted neither a political power nor a military power, despite the fact that they were better fighters and were more daring and courageous than the cultured people of Byzantium and Persia. Whenever an Arab tribe became insolent or did anything that displeased the Super Powers of those days, they would set some of their vassal princes against it and force it into subjugation. Today, the world of Islam stands exactly where the Arab tribes stood in those days, because of their disunity, not because of a lack in manliness or courage. Today, whenever a Muslim state becomes 'insolent' and begins to form its own independent policy, paying no heed to the dictates of the "Super Powers", it is brought back to its 'right sense' through the military might of some vassal nation. This striking similarity is also found in the moral aspect. The Arabs of the pre-Islamic era were at the lowest point of moral degeneration- and so are we today. Gross selfishness, corruption and obscenity are the most outstanding features of our social life. Our personal gains always reign supreme in our mind, we are willing to sacrifice the national interest for our petty personal interest- nay, we are even willing to sell our nation into slavery in exchange for some paltry personal gain.
From the time that the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam began his mission to the moment he breathed his last, was a period of 23 years. Within this short span of time, what he did was the greatest miracle ever wrought in human history. The picture of Arabia stood completely changed. The ferocious and warring tribes were united and welded into a strong and powerful nation. This revolution did not go unnoticed by the Super Powers of those days, and the Arabs were soon engulfed in hostilities with them. It finally resulted in open warfare. What was the result of this? The very Arabs who used to be subjugated and suppressed by petty vassal princes, swept through the mighty Persian empire and set the emperor fleeing to China. Byzantium suffered many defeats and lost much of its territory.
This was only one aspect of the Holy Prophet's Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam reform. The political supremacy thus gained had resulted from the moral reform wrought by him. He created a society free from racial, linguistic and tribal prejudices, free from class strife, free from selfishness and conscious of common interests. It is certainly difficult for man to be free from selfish motives, but if the individuals are not taught and trained to forego personal interests for the sake of common interest, the nation soon falls a prey to the selfishness of its component parts.
How did the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam accomplish this moral reform? Nothing can thrive in a void, it requires a support and the support of moral values is faith - not traditional, but a living and vibrant faith in Almighty Allah. It is quite true that every act an individual performs has its effect on the society and the effect produced on the entire society also reverts to the performer of the act as a member of the society. But this complicated system of action and reaction is too much for a layman to realise. Hence he is always motivated by the immediate gains, neglectful of the consequences in the long run. He can only be restrained by a sound and living faith in Allah. Sometimes it also happens that an evil-doer escapes the consequences of evil wrought by him, leaving the entire nation to reap the bitter fruit thereof. Hence, no consideration or fear of material consequences has greater effect on the preservation of moral values than faith in Allah.
The first and foremost lesson, therefore, taught by the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam to his followers was that faith in Allah, an Omnipotent, Omnipresent and Omniscient Allah, who watches His servants and remains by their side wherever they are. An Allah who will reward them for acts of virtue and punish them for vices. To have faith in the unseen Lord is perhaps the most difficult task man can accomplish. The faith which is commonly professed is not conviction, it is the admission of authority as a convenient idea. As regards such faith, Allah says in the Holy Qur'aan:
"The villagers said 'we believe'. Say: you did not believe, but rather say: 'we have surrendered', for faith has not yet entered in your hearts." [S49:V14]
This feeble faith does not enable one to risk his all, even his life, for the cause of virtue. Faith in Allah is not a mere dogma, it has got to be obtained through observation of the creation of Allah and sound argument and judgement.
Meditation and argument lead man only half the way. The sort of faith which is obtained thus may be termed as probability, not certainty. Yet this probability is a valuable understanding as it sets man probing still further into the unknown realm of spiritual realities. This is the state where one cannot lay implicit faith on reasoning without risking the peril of being lost in the labyrinth of thought. This is the stage where Divine help should be invoked through prayer and the observance of a disciplined moral life. The Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam has said that man is never closer to Allah than the moment when he lies prostrate before Him in prayer. This is why he has termed prayer as Me'raj of the believers. Those who want to experience spiritual realities should observe a disciplined life and seek the closeness to their Lord by appearing often in His August Presence. When this stage is attained, faith is perfected. Such are the people who rise high above all considerations of sorrow and fear. They live in a state of perpetual bliss. They become impregnable.
This is what the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam did for the first thirteen years of his mission. He taught them moral values, and how to live a morally disciplined life. He infused in them a living and vibrant belief in Allah. Then began the second phase of his mission, which was unavoidable, i.e. the spread of Islam to the tribes all over Arabi, and then to the neighbouring countries. This was done more by example than in any other way. This nation continued in prosperity just as long as they were steadfast to the way of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam. And when they turned away...
A Perfect Man - I
This is the first in a series of articles highlighting certain aspects of the character and personality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam. Topics such as his honesty, generosity, sincerity and hospitality will be discussed in future articles.
This earth has seen great men in the thousands, who achieved greatness in one area or another. Some of them even left their marks on the pages of history. Great kings, warriors, conquerors, philosophers, law-givers, poets and military generals came on the stage of this world and temporarily influenced the lives of people in one way or another and left without leaving anything permanent in the form of their personal example or eternal teaching. Some of these great men might have influenced some aspects of human life in different ways and in different manners, but none has affected it in its totality.
The Messengers of Allah were the only persons who influenced human life in different ways in its totality. They brought virtue and goodness and removed evil and sufferings. They purified the entire system of their day; economic, social and political, from excesses and malpractices and established justice and benevolence in every walk of life. They made these revolutionary changes in society through their Divine teachings and personal examples, and not by coercion. Even the Messengers of Allah, such as Hazrat Ibrahim, Hazrat Musa and Hazrat Isa Alaihimus Salaam who changed the course of history and influenced the lives of men by their teachings and outstanding personal example, have not left behind much from which present or future generations can get inspiration.
Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
The Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam is the only Messenger and personality in history whose entire life record is fully preserved. Not only the important events of his life, but the record of his daily life, from birth to passing-on is written on the pages of history. All his sayings, doings, actions and the details of his conduct and character are kept. In short, his whole life, at home, in the mosque and outside, was fully known to his companions, and was recorded as an open book so that the following generations could learn lessons and get inspiration from his example.
Another thing about his life is that it is most comprehensive and perfect and can serve as an ideal for men and women of all ages, working in all professions and trades. Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was not only a Messenger, but a man as well. He taught people to be good, honest and just in their private as well as public dealings and his teaching was not confined to the mosque. At home he talked with his wives and in the market place he explained principles of buying and selling. When he was receiving deputations from abroad, he talked about inter-state matters which laid the foundations of international law. When at war, he devised laws of war and peace. While deciding disputes between his companions, he gave them a civil and criminal code of judgement. And to protect the rights of individuals and groups in the state, he gave them the judgements which later became the constitutional law of the Islamic state.
Fortunately, he left a comprehensive account of all his experiences for the benefit of future generations. His teachings are preserved in their original form in the Holy Qur'aan, and his sayings and doings are preserved in the form of the Hadith. These records cover matters of morality, spirituality, economics, sociology and politics. The advice is absolutely perfect and free from human weakness. It shows the moderate way of life, avoiding the extremes to both sides. Besides, it is practical and meets all the needs of man. Above all, the living example of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam is completely preserved to command love and reverence from his followers and inspire generations of people for ever. These two sources, the teachings and the life example of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam will always provide light and guidance to those who need it. People can seek light from his Message and guidance from his life; the two are the eternal sources of guidance for men and women in their struggle to achieve perfection in the moral, spiritual and social areas of life. He has set very high and noble ideals through his practical example for all of mankind to follow in every field of life.
Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala describes the personality of Hazrat Sayyidina Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam in these words: "And you stand on an exalted standard of character" (Holy Qur'an 68: ayat 4). Thus in the words of Allah Ta'ala, the standard of his character and personality is far above that of any other creation. He possessed the best and noblest qualities of the perfect man and was like a jewel illuminating the dark environment with his radiant personality, ideal example and glorious message.
Someone once enquired about his character and manners from Bibi Aisha Radiyallahu Anha, and she replied that the Qur'aan was his character. This means that not only did he verbally teach the Qur'aan to the people, but practised it and was himself a perfect example of the Qur'aan in practice. Whatever the Holy Qur'aan commands, he obeyed and whatever it forbids, he abstained from it more than anyone else. Hazrat Jabir Radiyallahu Anhu reports that the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam said:"Allah has sent me to perfect good qualities and to complete good deeds". The Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam is thus a true example of a perfect man. He lived the life of an ordinary man. He helped the poor, orphans and widows. He was kind to the weak and hospitable to strangers and travellers. He suffered from all but harmed none. He was affectionate and loving towards his friends and forgiving and merciful towards his enemies. He was sincere and honest in his mission; good and fair in his dealings; and just in deciding affairs of friends as well as of enemies. In short, all goodness and excellence have been combined in the person and personality of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.
A person of such magnitude transcends the barriers of time and space. People of all ages can find something in his life to provide them with guidance in their various fields of activity. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala clearly mentions this aspect of life:
"We have indeed, in the Messenger of Allah, a good example (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day." [Holy Qur'an 33: ayat 21]
A Perfect Man - II
The Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam worked all his life with utmost sincerity for the well-being of his fellow men. He spent all his time, his resources, and his energies on guiding the ignorant people of Arabia to the light of Islam. He was busy day and night in his mission for the betterment of humanity and suffered at the hands of the very people whom he was endeavouring to save from the fire of Hell. He was worried about the plight of the people,who were living in complete ignorance and evil and did not know what was good or bad for themselves. He wanted to save them from a life of evil and misery and bring them back to the ways of goodness and piety. Sometimes he felt sick and hurt at their bitter remarks and strong opposition, but never lost hope or gave way.
At Mecca, he went from house to house to every family and gave them the Message of Allah with great compassion, love and sincerity as their well-wisher, but in return they showered abuses upon him. He did not lose heart but continued to encourage them to the path of goodness. On another occasion, Almighty Allah comforted him in these words:
"We know indeed that what they say, grieves you:it is not you they reject; but the wicked deny the signs of Allah" [Holy Qur'an 6: Ayat 33]
Then in Surah Al-Ma'idah we read:
"Ya Rasul! let not those grieve you who run towards infidelity, some of those who say with their mouths, 'We believe'; but whose hearts believe not" (Holy Qur'an 5: Ayat 41) .
Sayyidina Rasulallah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam in spite of abuses and persecution, continued to invite people to the Light of Islam. He laboured day and night in his struggle to bring to them the Truth merely for the pleasure of the Almighty Allah. He never asked them for any kind of remuneration or compensation. "Say you,'I ask not of you any wage for it, but affection in respect of kinship" (Holy Qur'an 42: ayat 23).
His whole life bears witness to the sincerity and love with which he preached the mesaage of Islam. He never asked for any reward from the people for all his efforts towards their welfare and tolerated their abuses and taunts with great patience. No one paid any heed to his sincere and honest message. Some of them, including Abu Lahab, his uncle, abused him but he tolerated everyhting and continued his sincere efforts for the good of the people.
He invited his own family to his place and delivered a short speech in a very impressive way, explaining the basic principles of Islam. Then he said, "O my relatives, I have a brought a thing which will bring prosperity and happiness to you in this world and in the next world". No one except Hazrat Ali Radiyallahu Anhu, who was a boy, supported him. But he was so sincere and honest in his mission that in spite of abuses and hostility, he continued his struggle.
Once the chiefs of Quraish came to him and said, "O Muhammad, you have abused our gods, sown the seeds of disruption and discourse among us, destroyed our solidarity and brought misery and sadnes to all of us, If you want wealth, we will make you the richest man in the country. If you want power and leadership, we will make you our ruler. If you want a beautiful woman just name her,k and she will be yours. If you are sick, we can arrange for the best doctor to cure you". The Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam heard all this very quietly and replied,"I do not want any wealth or riches; nor have I any desire to be a king or a ruler; nor do I want any woman; nor am I sick. I am not interested in any of your proposals. I am but a humble servant of Allah, Who has sent me to you as His Messenger to warn you of His punishment if you reject His message, and give you good news if you accept it. If you accept this Message and follow me, you will reap the benefits of this world and the next". He further added," If you place the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left, and ask me to leave my mission in return , this I would not do. I shall continue to do my duty as assigned to me by my Lord".
What greater proof of his sincerity is needed! He rejected all the material wealth and worldly honours offered to him by the Meccan chiefs. He had only to compromise with them on some of his basic principles. If he was not commanded by the Almighty Allah to deliver His messageor if he was not sincere in his mission, he would easily have compromised with his opponents and enjoyed the worldly pleasures of wealth and status. But he was far above these petty attractions and was sincere and devout in his mission. Thomas Carlyle, in his book- Hero-Worship and the Hero in History, speaks of his sincerity in these words: " There was something in this Truth he had got which was of Nature herself; equal in rank to sun or moon or whatsoever thing Nature had made. It would speak itself there, so long as the Almighty allowed it, in spite of Sun and Moon, and all Kuraish and all men and all things. It must be that and could be no other".
"Ah, no! This deep-hearted son of the Wilderness with his beaming black eyes and open social deep soul, had other thoughts in him than ambition. A silent great soul; he was one of those whom Nature herself has appointed to be sincere - no hearsays could hide that unspeakable fact, 'Here am I !' Such sincerity, as we named it, has in very truth something of the Divine. The word of such a man is a Voice direct from Nature's own heart". And Carlyle continues,"A serious, sincere character; yet amiable, cordial, companionable, jocose even - a good laugh in him withal".
Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam struggled all his life, through thick and thin for the welfare of the people. He never gained anything materially, socially or politically. He had the good of the people at heart and spent all his life to achieve this in the light of the revelation of Allah. He lived an ordinary life like an ordinary man, doing his household chores, sewing his cloak, mending his shoes, repairing his walls. He sat among the people when he went to the mosque as one of them, without any distinctive position and no one there could recognise who was the Messenger and Ruler. All his life he struggled hard and sincerely for the good of the people, without any ostentatious pride. A cursory glance at his character will show his immense sincerity for the Mission assigned to him by Almighty Allah. And an impartial observer will hardly fail to notice, from almost every incident of his life, his sincere efforts for the betterment of humanity. Above, all this struggle was not for his financial gain or worldly glory, but for the Glory of Allah and the welfare of the people.
The Birth of Sayyidina Muhammad
Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
Prophecy of Hazrat Sayyidina Isa bin Maryam Alaihis Salaam
The forerunner to Hazrat Isa Alaihis Salaam was Hazrat Yahya, the son of Hazrat Zakariya Alaihis-Salaam. He was beheaded by king Herod, the Tetrarch of Galilee. Hazrat Yahya's body was buried by his disciples. They tried to wash the blood-stained clothes but the stains would not come clean. Because Hazrat Isa Alaihis-Salaam was one of the disciples of Hazrat Yahya Alaihis-Salaam , they went and reported the matter to Hazrat Isa Alaihis-Salaam. He foretold that these blood-stains would not come off the clothes until the date of the birth of the father of the Promised Prophet. On this day the blood would become fresh and by itself flow off the clothes miraculously, leaving them pure white.
On the day of the birth of Hazrat Abdullah, the father of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam, the Jewish elders in Syria saw the blood-stains become fresh and drip off miraculously from Hazrat Yahya's preserved blood-stained clothes, until they became pure white. Thereupon some of the learned Jews came from Palestine and Syria to Mecca to enquire about this newborn child. When they saw the 'Nur-e-Muhammadi' (Light of Muhammad) on the forehead of the child Abdullah, they recognised him and said this is 'Nur-e-Muhammadi' of the Promised Prophet. Hence they realised that Hazrat Abdullah was going to be the father of the Promised Prophet; as foretold by Hazrat Isa Alaihis-Salaam in relation to the blood-soaked clothes of Hazrat Yahya Alaihis-Salaam.
Attempt to Murder Hazrat Abdullah
The Jews of those days, who were famous for murdering their prophets, decided to send an armed band of 90 persons from Syria to kill Hazrat Abdullah. This incident took place when Hazrat Abdullah had grown up into a young man but before he got married. Thus they conspired to prevent the birth of the Promised Prophet, so as to ensure that the prophethood which had for so long been amongst the children of Hazrat Ishaaq Alaihis-Salaam (the Jews) may not get transferred to the children of Hazrat Isma'eel Alaihis-Salaam as foretold repeatedly in the Holy Bible. Before the 90 attackers could even touch Hazrat Abdullah, a number of horsemen came down from the sky and slew all 90 attackers.
Bibi Aaminah (alayhas-Salaam) visited by Angels
Hazrat Abdullah Radiyallahu-Anhu was married to his cousin Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha, the daughter of his uncle Wahb bin Abdul Manaf. The very night of their marriage , the 'Nur-e-Muhammadi' went from the forehead of Hazrat Abdullah , into the forehead of Bibi Aaminah. Shortly after that, Hazrat Abdullah left for Yathrib but did not return as he passed away on the return journey. An expectant Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha informed the members of the household that she was often being visited by angels and the previous prophets who announced that the child that she was bearing was Hazrat Muhammad, the Promised Prophet, through whom the world would be blessed.
They thought that perhaps some evil spirits might be appearing to her, so just a few days before the birth they chained her up , so that the chains would act as charms to ward off the evil spirits. That night she beheld an aged man come to her. He touched the iron and chains from her neck and hands and they fell away. The old man told her that he was Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis-Salaam "Khalilullah'. Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis-Salaam told her that when a ram was sacrificed instead of Hazrat Isma'eel Alaihis-Salaam, he had prayed to Allah that his child be blessed with the Promised Prophet through whom the world would be blessed; and which prayer Allah had accepted. This promise of Allah was now going to be fulfilled when the child she was carrying was born.
Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis-Salaam then said to Bibi Aaminah : "The child now in you, whose name will be Muhammad, is the only prophet from the descendants of my first son and heir, Isma'eel.(Ahsan ul Muwaiz). Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihis-Salaam then explained that the reason for the visit of the angels and previous prophets to her were due to the fact that she was the mother of the Promised Prophet. Thus Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha became the third woman in the whole of creation to receive direct visits of angels. The first was Bibi Sarah, the first wife of Hazrat Ibrahim Alahis-Salaam and the second was Bibi Maryam, the mother of Hazrat Isa Alaihis-Salaam.
The Birth of the Holy Last Messenger Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
Bibi Aaminah alayhas-Salaam stated that as soon as the labour pains of child-birth started an angel came and asked her to drink from a cup in his hand. This drink was whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. As soon as she drank this heavenly drink, her pain disappeared and all fear left her. She then saw the gates of Heaven open. The angels came down for the adoration of the new babe. Three angels went towards the Kaabah. One angel stayed over the Kaabah, one went to the East and the other towards the West. A light then spread out lighting up the universe. In this miraculous light, Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha could see distinctly the palaces of Palestine and Syria.
Then three unknown ladies appeared miraculously before Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha to attend to the delivery of the child. The first, said she was Bibi Hajira,the mother of Hazrat Isma'eel. The second was Bibi Maryam, the mother of Hazrat Isa Alaihis Salaam. The third was Queen Asiya, the wife of the Pharoah, who raised Hazrat Musa Alaihis-Salaam.
She was the first person in Pharoah's court who believed in Allah upon seeing the miracle of the snake. In the hands of these three nurses,
Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was born without an umbilical (navel) cord, circumcised and his body miraculously pure and clean without any kind of blood or dirt on it.
Thus Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was born on Monday the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal at dawn, 53 lunar years before Hijrah, which corresponds to the 20th April 570 A.D.
Miraculous happenings after birth.
Immediately after birth, the baby Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam prostrated to Allah and recited in a clear voice with his index finger of the right hand raised, and said the following words:" I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah. I am Muhammad, the messenger of Allah. O Sustainer of the Universe bless me and those who follow me." At once Allah spoke to His beloved and replied: I have blessed you and those who follow you. O Angels, be ye witness of the fact that when he has not forgotten his followers upon his birth, then how can he forget them on the Day of Judgement." After the adoration of Allah and giving evidence of His Oneness, the baby picked up a handful of earth in his tiny fist. When this incident was related to Abu Lahab, he foretold that one day this child would become the ruler of this world.
Thereafter three angels appeared. One of them took a seal and marked the right shoulder and handed the child over to the mother. When Bibi Aaminah looked upon the face of the child, it was shining like the full moon and perfume of the finest otto(sweet -smelling essence) was coming from the body. A white cloud then appeared inexplicably and covered him and took him away saying: " O animals on the face of the earth, fish in the seas, and the trees remember the name of this child (Muhammad) and recognise him well. He has combined in himself all the wonderful and good qualities that were in all the prophets that have come on earth from Adam to Isa." When the cloud returned and replaced the child, he was clothed in green silk.
Incidents experienced at the time of the birth of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-Alaihi-Wasallam, and some other Meccans were at the Kaabah at this early hour before dawn. All of a sudden they were surprised to see the walls of the Kaabah bow miraculously before Maqam-e-Ibrahim. Then , miraculously, the Kaabah spoke (translation from the Arabic) : Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. He is the sustainer of Muhammad, who will purify the Kaabah from idols and idolatory and restore it to (its honoured position of) the house of Allah."
Abdul Muttalib hearing the walls of the Kaabah talk and seeing all the idols fall, ran home to verify if his daughter-in-law had given birth. He did not find the Nur-e-Muhammadi shining from the forehead of Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha. He thus knew that the child was already born, so he asked her to show him his grandchild. Bibi Aaminah Radiyallahu-Anha replied that he was in the next room but nobody could see him for three days, as the angels and the dwellers of heaven were paying homage to the child. Abdul Muttalib tried to force his way into that room, but he was confronted by an angel who told the grandfather that he could not see the child until the spiritual dwellers of heaven had completed their adoration.
There were a number of people at the Kaabah at the time of the birth of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu-Alaihi-Wasallam, when all the idols fell prostrate. They picked up and erected the fallen idols, but the idols fell down again on their faces. They propped them up again but the idols collapsed for a third time. These idols remained prostrate on the floor for a full twenty-four hours. No amount of effort to refit them throughout the world were successful. It was only on the next day that they were refitted. This was witnessed by thousands , not only at Mecca but all over the world.
After three days, Abdul Muttalib took his grandchild to the Kaabah and named him Muhammad. As soon as this child was taken to the Kaabah for the naming ceremony ,the four corners of the walls of the Kaabah declared:" There is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is the seal of Prophethood."
Incidents in Persia
At the date and time of birth of the Holy Prohet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam the following miracles took place:
1. The fire in the Magi temple of the Zoroastrians which had been alight for thousands of years, became quenched for the first time in recorded history. It had always burned ever since it was lit in the days of King Nimrod.
2. Fourteen towers of the Royal palace of Nausherwan, the Emperor of Persia, broke and fell.
3. The famous stone on which the fabulous throne of Persia was kept, cracked.
4. The deep and fast flowing river Sawa in the Persian Empire dried up instantly.
5. The river Samawa in the Persian Empire which had been dry for the past thousand years or more, started flowing immediately.
6. Emperor Nausherwan had a dream that very night in which he saw Arabian camels drag away the Iranian horses across the Tigris and spread themselves throughout Persia.
Incidents in Rome
The Roman emperor Justin II was frightened and alarmed on the day of the birth of Hazrat Muhammad Salallahu-Alaihi-Wasallam. When he went into the Royal Chapel to pray on that morning he was very surprised to find that the beautiful statue of Jesus Christ had very strangely come out of its firm base and was lying on the ground. It reminded him of the foretellings of Jesus that on the date of birth of the Promised Prophet, all idols all over the world would fall down. As he lifted up the idol of Christ it spoke and again fell on its face on the floor and declared:
1. A child has been born with his foreskin circumcised miraculously.
2. This child will be the greatest personage to come on earth and he will be from amongst the circumcised people.
3. This baby is not from a Jewish family but from the brethren of the Jews.
4. He will be a destroyer of idols and lay the foundation for the destruction of idolatry.
5. Those who will not listen to his teachings would be losers in this world and in the hereafter.
6. He will be the light of learning, which will be the cause of filling the earth with wisdom and knowledge and removing the darkness of ignorance.
Not only did the angels of heaven , the trees and the mountains celebrate the birth of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu-Alaihi-Wasallam, but all animals also celebrated on the night of the birth of Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu-Alaihi-Wasallam.
"O Allah! We seek goodness from Your Knowledge and with Your Power (and Might) We seek strength, and We ask from You Your Great Blessings, because You have the Power and We do not have the power. You Know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action (We are about to take) is better for my religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then make it destined for us and make it easy for us and then add blessings [baraka'] in it, for us. O Allah! In Your Knowledge if this action is bad for us, bad for our religion and faith, for our life and end [death], for here [in this world] and the hereafter then turn it away from us and turn us away from it and whatever is better for us, ordain [destine] that for us and then make us satisfied with it."
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Importance of a good shaykh by Shaykh Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi Allahu anhu
Al Ghawth al-Adham Shaykh Sayyad Abd'al-Qadir al-Jilani Radi 'Allahu anhu said: You must work hard to ensure that your hearts are not locked out of the door of His nearness. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must seek the company of a Shaykh who is learned in the law [hukm] and knowledge ['ilm] of Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He), and who will show you the way toward Him. Without seeing the successful [muflih], one cannot succeed. If a person does not seek the company of scholars who put their knowledge into practice ['ulama 'ummal], he is a chicken from an egg abandoned by the rooster and the mother hen.
Seek the fellowship of those who enjoy fellowship with the Lord of Truth (Almighty and Glorious is He). What each of you should do, when the night has grown dark and people have gone to bed and their voices are silent, is get up, take an ablution [yatawadda'], perform two cycles of ritual prayer [yusalli rak'atain] and say: "O my Lord, guide me to one of Your righteous servants near to You, so that he may guide me toward You and make me familiar with Your path." The instrument [sabab] is necessary. Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) was quite capable of guiding [His servants] to Him without the Prophets [anbiya']. Be sensible! You are getting nowhere. You must awaken from your heedless folly. As the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: If someone relies entirely on his own subjective judgement, he will go astray. Try to find someone who will be a mirror for the face of your religion [din], just as you look in the mirror to check the appearance of your outer face, your turban and your hair. Be sensible! What is this crazy foolishness? You say, "I don't need anyone to teach me," and yet the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam has said: The believer is the believer's mirror [al-mu'minu mir'atu 'l-mu'min].
When the believer's faith is sound, he comes to be a mirror for all creatures. They behold their religious faces [wujuh adyanihim] reflected in the mirror of his speech, every time they see him and get close to him. What is this craziness? Not a moment goes by without your begging Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) to provide you with more than you already have to eat, to drink, and to wear, with more sexual opportunities and more income. These are not things that could increase or decrease, even if you were to be joined in your plea by every supplicant whose prayers are answered [da 'in mujab].
Supplication [da 'wa] will neither increase one's sustenance by so much as an atom, nor reduce it by an atom. This is a foregone conclusion [mafrugh minhu]. You must devote your attention to doing what you have been commanded to do, and to avoiding what you have been forbidden to do. You should not worry about that which is bound to come your way, because He guarantees that it will come to you. Allotted shares [aqsam] arrive at their appointed times, whether they be sweet or bitter, whether you like them or dislike them.
The people [of the Way] attain to a condition in which they no longer have any prayer of supplication [du'a] or request [su'al] to make. They do not beg [in their prayers] to gain advantages, nor to get rid of disadvantages. Their supplication comes to be a matter concerning their hearts, sometimes for their own sake and sometimes for the sake of all creatures, so they utter the prayer of supplication without conscious premeditation [fi ghaiba].
"O '' Allah, endow us with good behaviour in Your company under all circumstances!
[When the believer's faith is sound], fasting [sawm], prayer [salat], remembrance [dhikr] and all acts of obedience [ta 'at] become second nature to him, mingled with his flesh and blood. Then he receives protection from Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) under all circumstances. The restraint of the law [hukm] does not desert him, not for an instant, while he is on this course. The law comes to be like the vessel in which he sits, as he travels over the ocean of the power [qudra] of his Lord (Almighty and Glorious is He). He goes on traveling over it until he arrives at the shore of the hereafter, at the shore of the ocean of grace and the hand of nearness. Thus he is sometimes in the company of creatures and at certain times in the company of the Creator. His work and toil are with creatures, while his relaxation is with the Creator.
From Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, "The Sublime Revelation (Al-Fath ar-Rabbani)," translated by Muhtar Holland (Al-Baz Publishing, Houston, 1992), p. 426-8.
Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him. (It was related by al-Bukhari)
“Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.”
Sunday, March 30, 2008
RASULULLAH S.A.W. (P.B.U.H.)
To apply kuhl (surmah, antimony, collyrium) in the eyes is mustahab. One should use kuhl with the intention of ajr (thawwaab, reward). It benefits the eye and one receives ajr for following the Sunnah also.