Adam (Arabic آدم), also spelt Adham or Aadam, is the first prophet of Islam and mentioned in the Qur'an as the husband of Eve (Hawwa).
ٓٮِٕكَةِ ٱسۡجُدُواْ لِأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ (٣٤
And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.
7:11 Walaqad khalaqnakum thumma sawwarnakum thumma qulna lilmalaikati osjudoo liadama fasajadoo illa ibleesa lam yakun mina alssajideena
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; not so Iblis; He refused to be of those who bow down.
Illa ibleesa aba an yakoona maAAa alssajideena
Not so Iblis: he refused to be among those who prostrated themselves.
15:32 Qala ya ibleesu ma laka alla takoona maAAa alssajideena
((Allah)) said: "O Iblis! what is your reason for not being among those who prostrated themselves?"
38:74 Illa ibleesa istakbara wakana mina alkafireena
Not so Iblis: he was haughty, and became one of those who reject Faith.
38:75 Qala ya ibleesu ma manaAAaka an tasjuda lima khalaqtu biyadayya astakbarta am kunta mina alAAaleena
((Allah)) said: "O Iblis! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to one whom I have created with my hands? Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?"
Adam in Hadith
The early Muslim commentator Tabari adds a number of details to the Torah, based on claimed hadith as well as specific Jewish traditions (so-called isra'iliyyat). Tabari records that when it came time to create Adam, Allah sent Gabriel (Arabic: Jibril), then Michael (Arabic: Mika'il), to fetch clay from the earth; but the earth complained, saying I take refuge in Allah from you, if you have come to diminish or deform me, so the angels returned empty-handed. Tabari goes on to state that Allah responded by sending the Angel of Death, who took clay from all regions, hence providing an explanation for the variety of appearances of the different races of mankind.
According to Tabari's account, after receiving the breath of Allah, Adam remained a dry body for 40 days, then gradually came to life from the head downwards, sneezing when he had finished coming to life, saying "Praised be Allah (al-hamd li-allah)". Having been created, Adam, the first man, is described as having been given dominion over all the lower creatures, which he proceeds to name. As one of the people to whom Allah is said to have spoken to directly, Adam is seen as a prophet in Islam.
According to the Sahih Bukhari, Adam was created about thirty meters in height. Since then the stature of human beings is being diminished continuously. (8:74:246)
At this point, Adam takes a prominent role in Islamic traditions concerning the fall of Satan. In these, when Allah announces his intention of creating Adam, some of the angels express dismay, asking why He (Allah) would create a being that would do evil. Teaching Adam the names reassures the angels as to Adam's abilities, though commentators dispute which particular names were involved; various theories say they were the names of all things animate and inanimate, the names of the angels, the names of his own descendants, or the names of Allah.
In the Muslim tradition, Satan (Iblis, Arabic for Lucifer), is regarded as a jinn and made out of fire, rather than an angel made out of light. This supports the Islamic notion of angels being creations that would not be accountable since they lack free will. When Allah commands the angels to bow to Adam, Satan is also present and refuses due to his pride, and is summarily banished from the heavens. Liberal movements within Islam have viewed Allah's commanding the angels to bow before Adam as an exaltation of humanity, and as a means of supporting human rights.
More extended versions of the fall of Satan also exist in works such as that of Tabari, and the Shi'a commentator al-Qummi. In these explanations Iblis is sent against his fellow jinn, who had angered Allah by sin and fighting. In such versions where Satan leads the battle on Allah's behalf, rather than his own, it is the pride and conceit resulting from his victory which results in his expulsion, since pride is seen as a sin. In other accounts this pride is based on Adam's creation itself, which incites Satan's resentment: he was created from fire, while Adam was created from the (lower) substances of sand, dirt, or mud; so Satan refuses to bow in submission to a creation made out of a "lower" substance. Islamic traditions based on the Qur'an further record that, in vengeful anger, Iblis promises Allah that he will lead as many humans astray as he can, to which Allah replies that it is the choice of humans - those who so desire will follow Satan, while those who so desire will follow Allah.
Al-Qummi records the opinion that Eden was not on earth but in heaven. After disobeying Allah, Allah sends Adam and Eve to earth, arriving first at mountain peaks outside Mecca; Adam on Safa, and Eve on Marwa. In this account, Adam remained weeping for 40 days, until he repented, at which point Allah rewarded him by sending down the Kaaba, and teaching him the hajj. Other Islamic traditions hold that Adam was moved to Sri Lanka, as the next best thing to Eden, and, viewing Adam as having been a giant, human size having shrunk drastically before the great flood, Adam's Peak is said to contain his giant footprint.
The Qur'an also describes the two sons of Adam (named Qabil and Habil in Islamic tradition, but not mentioned by name in the Qur'an) that correspond to Cain and Abel. In fact, Qabil and Habil are the Arabic names of Cain and Abel.